The foreign exchange market is over a counter (OTC) global marketplace that determines the exchange rate for currencies around the world. This foreign exchange market is also known as Forex, FX, or even the currency market. The participants engaged in this market are able to buy, sell, exchange, and speculate on the currencies.
These foreign exchange markets are consisting of banks, forex dealers, commercial companies, central banks, investment management firms, hedge funds, retail forex dealers, and investors. In our prevailing section, we will widen our discussion on the ‘Foreign Exchange Market’.
[Image will be uploaded soon]
Types of Foreign Exchange Market
The Foreign Exchange Market has its own varieties. We will know about the types of these markets in the section below:
The Major Foreign Exchange Markets −
In this market, the quickest transaction of currency occurs. This foreign exchange market provides immediate payment to the buyers and the sellers as per the current exchange rate. The spot market accounts for almost one-third of all the currency exchange, and trades which usually take one or two days to settle the transactions.
In the forward market, there are two parties which can be either two companies, two individuals, or government nodal agencies. In this type of market, there is an agreement to do a trade at some future date, at a defined price and quantity.
The future markets come with solutions to a number of problems that are being encountered in the forward markets. Future markets work on similar lines and basic philosophy as the forward markets.
An option is a contract that allows (but is not as such required) an investor to buy or sell an instrument that is underlying like a security, ETF, or even index at a determined price over a definite period of time. Buying and selling ‘options’ are done in this type of market.
A swap is a type of derivative contract through which two parties exchange the cash flows or the liabilities from two different financial instruments. Most swaps involve these cash flows based on a principal amount.
Functions of Foreign Exchange Market
The various functions of the Foreign Exchange Market are as follows:
Transfer Function: The basic and the most obvious function of the foreign exchange market is to transfer the funds or the foreign currencies from one country to another for settling their payments. The market basically converts one’s currency to another.
Credit Function: The FOREX provides short-term credit to the importers in order to facilitate the smooth flow of goods and services from various countries. The importer can use his own credit to finance foreign purchases.
Hedging Function: The third function of a foreign exchange market is to hedge the foreign exchange risks. The parties in the foreign exchange are often afraid of the fluctuations in the exchange rates, which means the price of one currency in terms of another currency. This might result in a gain or loss to the party concerned.
Features of Foreign Exchange Market
This kind of exchange market does have the characteristics of their own, which is required to be identified. The features of the Foreign Exchange Market are as follows:
1. High Liquidity
The foreign exchange market is the most easily liquefiable financial market in the whole world. This involves the trading of various currencies worldwide. The traders in this market are free to buy or sell the currencies anytime as per their own choice.
2. Market Transparency
There is much clarity in this market. The traders in the foreign exchange market have full access to all market data and information. This will help to monitor different countries’ currency price fluctuations through the real-time portfolio.
3. Dynamic Market
The foreign exchange market is a dynamic market structure. In these markets, the currency values change every second and hour.
4. Operates 24 Hours
The Foreign exchange markets function 24 hours a day. This provides the traders the possibility to trade at any time.
Participants of Foreign Exchange Market
The participants in a foreign exchange market are as follows:
Central Bank: The central bank takes care of the exchange rate of the currency of their respective country to ensure that the fluctuations happen within the desired limit and this participant keeps control over the money supply in the market.
Commercial Banks: Commercial banks are the channel of forex transactions, which facilitates international trade and exchange to its customers. The commercial banks also provide foreign investments.
Traditional Users: The traditional users consist of foreign tourists, the companies who carry out business operations across the globe.
Traders and Speculators: The traders and the speculators are the opportunity seekers who look forward to making a profit through trading on short-term market trends.
Brokers: Brokers are considered to be the financial experts who act as a sure intermediary between the dealers and the investors by providing the best quotations.