Stages of Group Formation

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What is a Group?

Making a team or group is exactly like maintaining a healthy relationship. Just like a relationship, every member of the group has to be patient, give relentless efforts, and also requires support and understanding from the other members of the group. These key factors make the group recognizable as a group. Every member changes from being a collection of strangers to a united group with a common goal.

A group is an assemblage of many people. In simple words, it can be understood as a collection of two or more two individuals coming together to interact with each other; so that they can achieve the same goals and objectives of an organization or a company. This lays the foundation of a company.

Characteristics of a Group

1)  Size- 

A group is formed with at least two members. Usually, the number of group members in a group ranges from 15 to 20 members. It becomes difficult to manage a large group. Therefore it is said that the more members in a group the more complex it is to manage.

2) Goals- 

The reason behind the existence of a group is having certain goals to achieve among the group members. A group cannot exist without a goal.

3) Norms- 

A group must have certain norms for effective interaction with the group members.

4) Structure- 

Based on the roles as well as the positions held by the members, the group has to have a structure.

5) Roles- 

The group leader assigns a certain role to every group member which they have to achieve in a given time.  

6) Interaction- 

Interacting with the members is very crucial for the group as it increases the bond and motivation to work efficiently. The interaction among the members can occur in various ways. It can be a face to face interaction or a telephonic interaction, in writing form or any other manner.

7) Collective Identity- 

A group is an aggregation of individuals. The individuals are separately called the members and collectively called a group.


Types of Groups

There are two types of group as follows:

1) Formal Groups- 

Formal groups are those groups that are formed by the management of an organization or a company to achieve certain goals and objectives. It is further classified as:

a)  Self-directed Teams- 

The group of employees who are authorized to make their own decisions are called self-directing teams. It is independent and also self-governing in nature.

b) Quality Circles- 

Several employees who meet every week for an hour to talk about their problems and are classed together to the same fields come under the category of quantity circles. They also identify the causes of a problem and find out the solution to take necessary steps in this regard.

c)  Committees- 

A committee is formed by the management of an organization for different matters to identify and discuss the issues of the company and arrive at a conclusion. It can be a standing committee, or an advisory committee, or an audit committee, or a grievance committee, or can be an Adhoc committee.

d)  Task Force- 

Taskforce is a temporary committee where the people belonging from different fields are grouped for the performance of the task.

2)  Informal Groups- 

Informal groups are formed by the social and psychological variables operating in the workplace. The creation of such type of groups is very spontaneous due to the common interest, social needs, physical proximity, and mutual understanding among the members. 


Five Stages of Group Development

1) Forming Stage- 

The very first stage of group development is the forming stage. This stage presents the time where a group is just formed and the members are starting to come together as a team. In this stage, the members are learning what to do.

2) Storming Stage- 

The storming stage is the second stage of group development. In this stage, the group members have understood the work and therefore the dispute and the competition are at a high level.

3) Norming Stage- 

This is the stage where the group becomes fun and enjoyable because the interaction among the members is easier, productive, and cooperative.

4) Performing Stage- 

At this stage, a sense of belongingness is established because the talents, skills, and experience of each group member are acknowledged. The work becomes more flexible.

5) Adjourning Stage- 

This stage is very crucial in group development. This stage shows that the project has come to an end. 

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1) What are the reasons for the Formation of a Group?

Ans: The reasons for the formation of a group are as follows:


a) Personal Characteristics- 

Individuals with similar beliefs, attitudes, and values are more likely to form a group. People with similar characteristics feel more connected with each other. This leads to the formation of a group among a few individuals.


b) Opportunity for Interaction- 

If the employees of an organization or accompany are allowed to interact with each other then they find many things in common among themselves. This also results in the formation of a group.


c) Interest and Goals- 

When the individuals share a common interest and the same goals among themselves then, cooperation and coordination are required. This can also lead to the formation of groups.


d) Influence and Power- 

As compared to an individual, a group has more power and influence over anything which promotes the formation of a group.

2) Why is the adjourning Phase a Critical Phase in the Formation of a Group?

Ans: After the performing stage a group is adjourned. The adjourning stage ends the process of the formation of a group. Therefore once the group is adjourned, the task that was assigned to the group is complete. After a cooperative meeting, it is very crucial to establish normalcy in the operations. This makes the adjourning phase a very pivotal phase in the stages of group formation. 


A group is formed through the collective efforts of forming, norming, storming as well-performing. Adjourning a group completes the formation of a group. This shows that the group is successful in completing its predetermined objectives and goals.