Rural Development in India

As the topic suggests, rural development in India is the overall progress in the economic and social conditions of Indians residing in rural areas. It is not an objective but a constant process in itself. As a result, this process actively contributes to the economic growth of a rural region, and the country as a whole. Conversely, the economic development in an area leads to rural development. 

Therefore, the objectives of rural development include providing opportunities of earning a respectable livelihood. Consequently, the rural population will be able to relieve themselves of poverty and economic backwardness. The policy-makers in India attempt to introduce modern education, health standards, and land reforms to offer the rural inhabitants a standard of living. 


What is Rural Development in India? 

With the passage of several decades since independence, the Indian government has stressed on the need for rural development in India.

Task for you: Find out how does rural development fuel the overall economic growth of India? 

To begin with, rural development stands for the increase in income opportunities for people living in rural areas. According to the Population Census of 2011, the percentage of people residing in rural areas is close to 69% of the Indian population.

It roughly translates to about 83.3 crore Indians who are settled in rural areas. Thus, rural development also includes the measures implemented by government bodies to curb the poverty rate in such areas. 

As per another report by the Government of India, the percentage of the Indian population that was situated Below Poverty Line (BPL) in 2011-2012 amounted to 21.9%. Needless to say, people affected by rural poverty contribute to a large chunk of the percentage. Therefore, development of rural areas in terms of economy and viability of professional options is much needed. Through this progress, a sizeable portion of the Indian population will find themselves out of the BPL group.

Task for you: Are the markers of rural development and urban development same?


What is Required?

As a result, the rural population requires long-lasting reforms and consistent project on rural development in India in sectors such as agriculture, education, and health. With necessary steps and measures, it is thus possible to introduce development in rural landmasses that will stand the test of time.

However, before all this, it becomes important to determine which areas fall under rural India. With this focused study, it becomes easier to point out the areas which need development in every aspect of economic and non-economic activities. 


What are Rural Areas? 

Besides the obvious definition, there is a lot more to know about exactly which areas stand for rural India. By knowing the rural area's meaning, students will be able to distinguish between economic activities occurring in distinct geographical areas. 

As per the Planning Commission of India (PCI), rural meaning refers to the geographical area where the maximum population of Indians is 15,000. In addition, it can also be an area where the population density remains within 400 people per square kilometre. Therefore, these areas are usually placed within the spectrum of Tier 3 to Tier 6 cities. 

As far as governing bodies are concerned, rural areas are equipped with panchayats which act as local decision-making entities. Therefore, a rural area lacks a municipal board. Simply speaking, rural areas include the countryside and villages that we commonly encounter.

Moreover, the importance of rural development lies in the fact that the government aims to increase rural expenditure. Therefore, the objectives of rural progress involve boosting the contribution of rural expenditure to the total national monthly expenditure from the current 55%. 


What are the Objectives of Rural Development in India? 

With the concept of rural development explained, let’s move on to what rural development aims to achieve. First of all, decision-making entities ensure positive durable changes to boost the economy of a rural area. As a result, dedicated areas will witness a long lasting growth pattern that is likely to reduce poverty rates. 

However, the primary objectives of rural development include the following – 

  • To promote economic growth among the rural population through adequate access to food, shelter, clothing, education and employment. With proper opportunities proportional to the same in urban areas, individuals residing in rural areas will be able to get a level ground for income options. 

  • To introduce modern techniques for agriculture in rural areas to contribute to an increased productivity rate. As a result, the role of rural development is to establish sustainable and affordable technology to increase production in a national market. 

  • To ensure consistent rural infrastructure development in India. In addition, this process should involve all local rural populations. Consequently, they will gain the agency to make large-scale economic decisions that lead to area-based financial development. 

  • To bridge the gap between local governing bodies and the Central administration for better economic communication. On top of that, rural development aims to provide executive powers to panchayats for carrying on the policies framed by experts. 

  • Finally, the objective of rural development is to use natural resources within a territory to ensure maximum economic benefit for inhabitants. This also includes important land reform measures to boost agricultural output and productivity of every individual involved. 

Now that we know what the concept of rural development in India aims to achieve, let’s progress to the elements that impact rural growth.


What are the Factors that Affect Rural Development in India? 

There are multiple factors that contribute to both rural and urban development of India. However, an in-depth knowledge about these elements of rural development will certainly help students understand the ingredients of rural progress.

As a result, they will be able to pinpoint the nature of factors which have a direct impact on rural development. 

Therefore, factors affecting the rural development in India are duly stated below – 

  • Infrastructure – The infrastructural condition of a rural area has a direct link with its scale of development. Primarily, infrastructure consists of pucca roads, consistent supply of electricity, and availability of transport.

With these factors, governing bodies have been able to reduce connectivity issues related to these areas. As a result, there has been an increase in the efficiency of supply of agricultural output to mainland markets all over India. Therefore the opportunity of income increases among the rural residents. 

  • Education – It is quite obvious that the level of education plays an integral role in the overall progress of rural areas. First of all, education introduces one to new and innovative ideas to improve his/her social condition. Educating the rural population at an early age ensures that there is no discrimination between urban and rural population. Therefore, they are open to countless employment opportunities from multiple sectors and industries. 

  • Healthcare – Needless to say, healthcare is an important part of rural development in India. The rural population is often susceptible to diseases which can be avoided with proper healthcare measures. Besides, this contributes directly to their productivity.

As a result, they will be able to participate in healthy competitions in the market. Proper healthcare systems also reduce mortality rate, thus ensuring a healthy and meaningful life. 

  • Technology – The role of technology in rural development is undisputable. First of all, modern production techniques in various sectors can actively increase their rate of production, which allows for a remarkable rise in the scale of economic activities in rural areas. On the other hand, technology significantly reduces irrigation and quality issues. Therefore, the presence of appropriate technological means such as pumps, tractors is the make-or-break factor of rural development. 

In addition, access to clean drinkable water and sanitation is a must for development of rural areas. In this way, rural residents will be able to benefit from equal income opportunities and sustainable healthcare services. 


How to Ensure Rural Development of India? 

The Government of India has launched multiple projects on rural development in India over the decades. The keys to a sustainable rural development in terms of economic situation include the following – 

  • Proper presence of advanced facilities for irrigation to all land-types in India. As a result, farmers can boost their agricultural output and create economic opportunities for themselves. 

  • Credit facilities on access to the necessary ingredients of farming such as fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds. Subsidies on electricity used for farming purposes ensure that the rural population saves more than it spends. 

  • Combat with social inequalities and discrimination in rural areas to create a sense of unity. This sense of social unity will lead to the formation of an economic class whose aim is to boost production and ensure rural development. 

  • Making sure that there are adequate training sessions for farmers to equip them with modern agricultural measures. Besides, farmers should also be aware of agricultural policies, land reforms, and market prices for the best use of their resources. 

In addition, any improvement in current agricultural markets also makes sure that they can accommodate the economic contribution of the rural population. In these ways, one can ensure a sustainable growth curve and desirable rural development of India. 

For an in-depth insight into the factors that determine rural progress in India, go through the study materials available in our website. You can also install the Vedantu app to help you with your classes.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Question 1: What is Rural Development?

Ans. – Rural development refers to the economic and social progress in the lives of peoples residing in rural areas. This also includes providing equal opportunities of income and respectable livelihood to the rural population.

Question 2: What is the Importance of Rural Development?

Ans. – Rural development is important in every country because it reduces economic discrimination and provides financial opportunities to individuals. Through these opportunities, the rural population can alleviate their poverty.