Management as an Art, Science and Profession

The thought regarding ‘is management an art or science’ has always been conflicting. Therefore, students must understand how management can be an art, profession, or science depending upon its relevant features. 

Management as Science

  • Universal Acceptance

Scientific principles are universally accepted principles and can be applied across all situations, locations, and times. For example, Newton’s law of motion applies to every object in motion irrespective of their location and state. Similarly, management as well comprises specific fundamental principles that are accepted worldwide. For instance, the principle of unity of command applies to all organisations, large and small.

  • Cause and Effect Relationship 

In science, every cause results in an effect. This phenomenon is known as causality. To put simply, every event occurs due to reason. For instance, rusting of iron is due to the reaction between iron and oxygen in the presence of water molecules. Similarly, management follows the same rule. Every action has consequences, like if employees aren’t treated well, then the productivity will degrade. Conversely, an organisation can attain increased productivity if the workers are given a bonus and satisfactory remuneration.


  • Experimentation and Observation 

Science is all about facts and logic and deduces results through experimentation and observation. The principles of management have been formed along the same lines. For instance, equal work opportunities and fair remuneration for the work are known to improve one’s productivity at work. This idea was derived through scientific observation.

  • Test of Validity and Predictability 

Every scientific principle and law is tested for validity and can be verified at any given point in time, and it shall provide similar result each time. Likewise, one can test the principles of management and expect the same results every time. Consider two companies A and B. Let’s say, company A has one boss who administers that company’s operations, whereas, company B has two bosses and they both try to manage the organisation as per their judgement. An experiment will show that company A performs better with one superior to direct all. 

Subsequently, the answer to the question ‘is management an art or science’ is definitely science if not both. But in reality, management can act as both. Here’s how that is possible. 

Management as an Art 

  • Skilful application 

Art is personalised, and the style of every artist is different. Each artist has a different perspective, style, and a different approach to a job. Likewise, one can successfully manage their organisation only with their individual skills. Here, one’s approach to the tasks at hand will be different from another, and hence management can be considered an art.


  • Creativity 

Every artist is creative, and similarly, managers need to show creativity and innovation in the decisions they make for their business to stand out and gain a competitive edge. Hence, creativity and innovation in management help managers take unique yet effective decisions.


  • Practical & Theoretical Knowledge 

Art supports and believes the importance of theoretical knowledge and hence most of the art classes, whether it is music, painting, or dance also carry theoretical papers for students to study. And evidently, the practical knowledge forms the basis of art. In management, the significance of theoretical and practical knowledge is not new. With a theoretical understanding of management principles and their subsequent practice, managers can perform better in managing their organisational goals.

  • Practise 

An artist becomes seasoned with years of practice and dedication towards their work. Management as art speaks the same terms. Managers have to go through this trial and error method before they can become seasoned managers who can make appropriate decisions.


  • Target-oriented 

An artist never works on their piece of art without any goals in mind; goals make them more focused and act accordingly for its fulfilment. The same holds for management. A manager must set objectives and work towards achieving it to become proficient in their endeavour. 

From the above speculations, it can be derived that management as an art and science is a plausible claim. 

Multiple Choice Questions 

Q1. Choose the appropriate option concerning management, it is 

  1. Art, science, maths

  2. Art, science, profession

  3. Art, social science, and profession

  4. Art, science, and commerce

Answer: b 

Q2. Management can be termed as a creative as well as a ___________ process. 

  1. Continuous 

  2. Democratic 

  3. Technical 

  4. None of the above 

Answer: a


Q3. At which level of organisation management exists?

  1. Top 

  2. Middle 

  3. Lower 

  4. All of the above 

Answer: d

Q4. Principles of management are made by 

  1. Rule of thumb 

  2. Customer experience 

  3. Observation and experimentation 

  4. Laboratory experiments 

Answer: c


Management as a Profession 

Management can be carried off as a profession by individuals who have gained proper education and graduate the relevant tests. Students are taught with essential concepts of management and need to pass particular exams so that they can work as a manager in future. They also need to qualify an entrance examination to get enrolled in an institution for an educational degree. 

Further, they can work as professionals and manage various activities in an organisation. With the learnt principles of management, they put their knowledge on a test and use various tried and tested methods and innovative ways to achieve effective management. 

With management as an art, science, and profession, it can help businesses achieve their goals effectively. And hence, students need to acquire in-depth knowledge of the topic to improve their academic performance. 

Students can go through the management science notes and acquire a profound knowledge on the subject. They will also be able to use this theoretical knowledge later to gain experience in the field. For other such topics, students can access the study materials available at Vedantu’s app and website.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Explain Management as a Profession.

Management as a profession can be pursued by those individuals who are qualified and tested to manage resources to produce the best output. Firstly, students need to qualify through the entrance exams to acquire a suitable degree in management and then they can pursue a career in the same department.

2. How is Management an Art?

Art is a creative approach it is goal-oriented, creative, and requires theoretical as well as practical knowledge. Likewise, management works favourably with such factors. To establish effective management in an organisation, it is essential to determine goals, follow a creative approach and practise their methods to gain experience.

3. Write Some Points that Verify Management as Science Works.

Like science, management as well follows the principles like – Universal acceptance, cause and effect relationship, experimentation and observation, and test of validity.