Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
Store Icon

Mainstream or Orthodox Economics

Last updated date: 04th Mar 2024
Total views: 166.5k
Views today: 2.66k
hightlight icon
highlight icon
highlight icon
share icon
copy icon

What is Mainstream Economics?

Mainstream economics is a term used to describe orthodox schools of economic thought. Many mainstream economic underlying models and beliefs are based on concepts such as economic scarcity, the role of government regulation or other action that influences an actor's decision, the concept of utility, and the idea that people are rational actors who will make decisions based solely on available information rather than emotion.

Although the term is used to describe theories that are frequently associated with the neoclassical economics tradition, mainstream economics is not a branch of Economics in and of itself. Statistics and mathematical models are used in mainstream Economics to illustrate theories and assess various economic trends. It is based on rational choice theory, which states that people make decisions in order to maximise their own utility. Many of the basic concepts and categories that underpin conventional economics are easily taught in academic settings.

What is Mainstream Meaning with Example?

Mainstream economics, which studies rational actors in a world of trade-offs, has faced a number of challenges. Heterodox economics, or schools of thought that differ from orthodox economics, are more sceptical of the function of the state and rational human behaviour.

The fundamental criticism of conventional economics is the absence of issues concerning external factors. For example, this school of thought regards actors as completely rational. It is based on the erroneous assumption that people are self-centred and only consider themselves. The invisible hand is supposed to move markets without fear or favour, and orthodox economics makes no allowance for moral or compassionate considerations.

Example of Mainstream: Early hypotheses concerning the development of economics as a field of study are included in mainstream economics. Conventional economics, for example, includes the invisible hand theory, which moves markets. Individual self-interest and the freedom to produce and consume things, according to this viewpoint, should optimise the general good.

Governments have very little to no role to play in this concept, with the exception of ensuring that the law is followed. The Great Recession and other recent events, in particular, have demonstrated that people seeking profits do not always result in the general good.

Orthodox Meaning with Example

Orthodox synonym is mainstream. The study of human decision-making under conditions of scarcity is the focus of orthodox economics. Individuals, families, businesses, and societies can all make these decisions. If you pay close attention to your surroundings, you will notice that scarcity is a reality. When there is a scarcity, more people demand the resources, goods, and services that are available. People, equipment, land, and raw materials are all needed to produce the goods and services we want, but they are in short supply. Time is obviously the most valuable limited resource because everyone, rich or poor, only has 24 hours in a day to try to buy what they want.

Example of Orthodox: The government is charged with environmental regulation is a classic example of an institutional mechanism designed to mitigate negative externalities. Environmental degradation and pollution, according to conventional economic theory, impose uncountable costs on society as a whole. As a regulator, the government can use a variety of regulatory measures to try to reduce pollution. For example, using taxation to raise costs for polluters is one option supported by many, but not all, orthodox economists. In conventional environmental resource economics, the environment is seen as secondary to the economy, and marginal analysis is used to calculate the economic benefits and costs of environmental changes.

Mainstream or Orthodox Economics

Mainstream economics is orthodox economics. Alternatively, we can consider the orthodox schools of economic theory. Mainstream refers to activities, concepts, or attitudes that the majority of us consider to be common or usual.

We define mainstream economics as the collection of economic information, models, and theories taught in colleges that economists generally accept as the foundation for discussion.


However, economists have recently begun to accept the notion that people are not completely rational. In reality, behavioural economics is a relatively new area of study for this discipline. Furthermore, markets are not always efficient, and it is not always possible to quantify the factors influencing an actor's decision. These ideas appear to be more prevalent since the Great Recession.

Furthermore, mainstream economics ignores economic issues such as pollution and sustainability, which are gaining traction. Environmental economics, once again, is a distinct discipline that studies the incentives and decision-making processes that are specifically designed to support sustainable behaviours and businesses.

FAQs on Mainstream or Orthodox Economics

1. What are the disadvantages of mainstream or orthodox economics?

Finally, mainstream economics, which has limited applicability, does not take moral considerations or our relationship with the natural world into account (the invisible hand only works if we have no externalities). However, from the standpoint of conventional economics, real-world behaviour is occasionally illogical. However, orthodox economics, which is based on simplified models and many economists who have been greatly influenced by such models, has an overly narrow focus and ignores a number of significant factors, such as the importance of competition for relative standing, environmental disruption, and behavioural patterns that defy the limited definition of rationality.

2. What exactly is orthodox economics?

The study of human decision-making under conditions of scarcity is the focus of orthodox (or neoclassical) economics. Individuals, families, businesses, and societies can all make these decisions. The study of orthodox economics focuses on human decision-making under scarcity conditions. Individuals, families, businesses, and societies can all make these decisions. If you pay close attention to your surroundings, you will notice that scarcity is a reality. Positive economics, also known as orthodox economics, holds that facts and values must be kept separate.

3. What is the basis of orthodox or mainstream economic analysis?

Individuals are the starting point for traditional economic analysis. Mainstream economists who share the goal of maximisation through rational action refer to people as units. Mainstream economists are eager to contribute to the field of mainstream economics. It necessitates the use of calculus, comparative statics, and mathematical models based on optimisation.

According to this definition, mainstream ideas are those that are typically regarded as heterodox because they contradict conventional neoclassical assumptions. In other words, when we use established techniques.