A debenture is an unsecured debt instrument. Typically, it is a certificate which is issued by a company as an acknowledgement that it owes money to its holder. It is issued to the public through a prospectus which is quite to the issue of shares.
The fact that there is no collateral involved with debentures, their holders are heavily dependent on the reputation and creditworthiness of the issuer. Like mentioned earlier, the primary purpose of issuing debenture is to raise the required funding or capital for business-oriented reasons. For investors, debentures are deemed to be low-risk investment options that help to generate substantial returns.
Test Your Knowledge: Who are debenture holders?
As per Companies Act, 2013, a company cannot issue debentures which accompany voting rights. Other than that, companies can issue these following debentures –
On the Basis of Security
On the Basis of Convertibility
On the Basis of Priority
First mortgage debentures
Second mortgage debentures
On the Basis of Negotiability
On the Basis of Permanence
Irredeemable or perpetual debentures
Test Your Knowledge: A debenture whose principal amount is not paid by the issuing company only at the time of liquidation is known as:
Debenture interest can be explained as the capital which debenture holders are entitled to earn for investing their money in the said company’s debenture. However, if a company tends to issue debenture as collateral security, the holders would not receive any interest on their investment.
Typically, interest on debentures is paid at a fixed rate on their face value systematically. It must be noted that such an interest is a charge on debenture issuing company’s profit and must be paid to the holders, irrespective of the revenue status.
As per Income Tax Act, 1961, debenture issuing companies are required to deduct TDS on interest on debentures at a specified rate of interest. However, such a tax is imposed only if the payable interest amount exceeds the mentioned limit. The tax thus collected is deposited to the income tax authorities by the denture issuing company.
Test Your Knowledge: Interest paid on debenture is:
Appropriation of Profits
Charge Against Profit
Transferred to General Reserve
Transferred to the Account of Sinking Fund
On that note, let’s check out how debenture interest is treated in the books of accounts.
Accounting Treatment of Interest on Debenture
This is how interest on debenture is treated in accounting in a different situation.
In Case Interest is Due and the Tax on It is Ignored – Interest Paid Journal Entry
In Case Interest on Debenture is Due and TDS is Levied – TDS Payable Journal Entry
In Case of Payment of Interest on Debenture – Interest Payable Journal Entry
In Case of Deposition of TDS – TDS Payable Journal Entry
Transferring Interest to the Statement of Profit and Loss at Year-End.
Test Your Knowledge: What is the nature of a debenture application account?
None of these
Task For You: Pass a journal entry for TDS deducted.
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1. What is the Meaning of Interest?
Ans. In finance, interest can be defined as a percentage of loan value that borrowers pay to lenders in addition to the principal amount. Typically, it is charged or offered at a fixed rate. Debenture interest is an example of interest.
2. What is a Debenture?
Ans. A debenture is a debt instrument with the help of which issuing companies intend on raising funds or capital. It is mainly a certificate which serves as a piece of evidence that the company owes money to the debenture holder.
3. What are the Types of Debentures?
Ans. Debentures are classified based on security, convertibility, permanence, priority and negotiability. The types include secured debenture, unsecured debenture, redeemable debenture, registered debenture, etc.