The producers are unable to reach everywhere to sell their produce. They reach their consumers through some middlemen like wholesalers or retailers. They also sign up with other channels for the distribution of their goods. The goods are also made available at different places through agents and agencies. Generally, a producer or a wholesaler appoints agents at different markets or in different parts of the country to sell goods on their behalf in return for the commission. This kind of arrangement is called Consignment.
The contract or an agreement of sending several goods by the producers or manufacturers of a place to their agents for the sale is known as a consignment.
The consignor is the person who sends the goods. Generally, producers or manufacturers are consignors. The person to whom the goods are sent for sale is known as the consignee. The consignor and the consignee share the relationship of a principal and an agent. The consignee operates entirely on behalf of the consignor. The consignee never becomes the owner of the goods. The consignor remains the owner of the goods. If in transit, the goods are destroyed due to unavoidable circumstances then the consignee is not responsible. The consignor has to bear the loss. The consignee sells the goods as per the instructions of the consignor. The consignee earns his commission or his expenses after the goods are sold at the market. It is to be noted that the consignee does not buy the goods, they just receive the possession of the goods on behalf of the consignor.
Types of Consignment
There are two types of consignment:
When goods are sent from one country to another for sale, the consignment is called outward consignment.
When the goods are sold domestically for sale then it is called inward consignment.
By attracting customers, you will be making large consignments and increasing sales volume.
Launching a new product and creating or capturing the market for it.
Earning higher revenue for the same product in another geographic area.
This will lead to growth and expansion of business.
Securing a consolidated marketplace domestically and internationally.
Make use of the expertise and talent of the consignee to increase sales.
As part of the consignment, the consignor sends the goods to the consignor. As part of the consignment process, the consignee should separate items that will be sold from those that will not (usually damaged or dirty items that might not be able to be sold in some jurisdictions). Although the goods were not sold until they were sold to a buyer, they cannot be treated as a sale until they were sold. Predetermined terms are set for how revenue is distributed from the sales and the length of time goods are held for sale. If the goods are not sold within that period, the consignor reclaims those goods. However, if the period is extended according to the contract, that can be agreed to. In the end, the consignor is paid out of the sales proceeds less his commission and expenses by the consignee.
Importance of Consignment
Consignment helps the manufacturers and the producers to bring economies of large-scale production with increased sales. It generates high sales which result in production on a large scale and this leads to economies of scale as large-scale production results in a fall in cost per unit.
It is more beneficial for the manufacturers who have many units at different locations in their domestic country or other countries. As in such situations, the local agents have more knowledge of the markets at those places than the manufacturers. So, he generates more profitable sales by approaching local customers.
Due to long-distance, if a prospective buyer is not easily approachable by a producer then the agent plays an important role to establish contacts with them regularly and ensure delivery of goods on time.
Features of Consignment
Consignor sends the goods to the consignee or agent for sale at a profit.
The consignor is the principal whereas the consignee acts as an agent.
The consignee does not buy the goods from the consignee. He needs to give the sale earnings to the consignor after goods are sold and not otherwise.
The consignee is not liable for any loss or destruction of the goods but he is responsible to take reasonable care in protecting the goods.
The unsold goods belong to the consignor and not to the consignee. The latter has to return the unsold goods to the consignor.
Only the consignor is entitled to any profit or loss for the goods sold by the consignor. The consignee earns the only commission.
Sale is a mutual contract wherein the ownership of goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer for a price or compensation.
Features of a Sale
In order to compose a sale, the following elements are important:
Bargain or contract of sale.
Payment or promise of payment of the price.
Delivery of goods.
Transfer the ownership of goods.
Distinction Between Consignment and Sale