Adjustment of Capitals

What is Meant by Adjustment of Capitals?

An adjustment of capital indicates the adjustment which is made in an account to adjust for the effect of inflation as there will be a change in the prices of goods or services that are used by the business on their day-to-day basis. In this case, stocks are being excluded but items like prepaid expenses, receivable bills, and the trade debtors are included.

At times, in situations of admission, the partners agree that their capitals are required to be adjusted to make them proportionate to their profit-sharing ratio. In this situation, with the capital of the new partner been given, the same is to be used as a base for estimating the new capital of the old partners.

The capitals after which partners can ascertain and thus be able to compare their old capitals after all the adjustments relating to goodwill reserves and revaluation of assets and liabilities, etc. are done. The partner whose capital drops short is required to bring in the necessary amount to cover up the shortage and the partner who has a surplus amount will need to withdraw the excess amount of the capital.


Capital Adjustment in Admission

During the time of admission of a new partner, capital rearrangements are to be made on the basis of the partners’ decision. The capital rearrangement takes place in this way – the contribution of partners towards the capitals is rearranged on the basis of their new profit-sharing ratio. For this, the Capital Accounts of the old partners are to be first adjusted with the Goodwill, Revaluation Account, to adjust the past profits if any.

After this, the capitals of all the partners who are continuing in the firm are rearranged in any of the following ways:

  • The calculation of the amount of capital is required to be made on the basis of the New Partners’ Capital contribution done.

  • The calculation is done of the amount of the capital which is made on the basis of Old Partners’ Capital Account.

  • The Capital Accounts of all partners are then re-adjusted on the basis of the new Profit-Sharing Ratio.

How to Calculate Adjusted Capitals of all Partners?

After the admission of the new partner, s/he acquires his own share in profits from the old partners who continue to exist in the firm. So, on the admission of a new partner in the firm, the other old partners are required to sacrifice a share of their profit in favour of the new partner. The main question is - What will be the share of the new partner and how will s/he acquire it from the existing partners if they decide mutually among the old partners together with the new partner? While, if nothing is specified as to how will the new partner should acquire his own share from the old partners, this may be assumed that he will get it from them in their agreed profit-sharing ratio.

On admission of a new partner in the firm, the profit-sharing ratio that will be shared among the old partners will change keeping in view the respective contribution of the profit-sharing ratio of the incoming partner. Hence, there is a definite need to ascertain the new profit-sharing ratio among all the partners. This again depends upon how does the new partner acquires his own share from the old partners for which there exist many possibilities.


Capital Adjustment in Retirement

During the retirement of the partners, the remaining partners decide to adjust their own capital contribution which is to be done in their profit-sharing ratio.

The capitals of all the continuing partners are required to be adjusted in the following three cases:

  • First Case: When the total capital of the new firm is given in the partnership deed.

  • Second Case: When the total capital of the new firm is not given in the partnership deed.

  • Third Case: When the outgoing partner is to be paid through cash which is brought by the continuing partners in such a ratio so as to make their capitals proportionate with their new profit-sharing ratio.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What do You Mean by Inflation?

Ans. Inflation can be defined as the decline of the purchasing power of a currency in a particular time period. This is a quantitative estimate which shows the rate at which the purchasing power declines. This inflation can be reflected in the increase of an average price level of a basket of selected goods and services over a period of time in an economy.  The rise in the general level of the prices is often expressed as a percentage which means that a single unit of currency buys much less than it did in the prior periods.

Inflation is the contrast of deflation which occurs when the purchasing power of the currency increases thus the prices decline.

Q2. Define Goodwill.

Ans. Goodwill is the intangible asset that is associated while the purchase of one company by another company. The value of the company's brand name, its solid customer base, and good customer relations, with good employee relations, and its proprietary technology represents some good reasons why goodwill must exist.


In accounting terminology, goodwill is an intangible asset which a buyer acquires from an existing business. The goodwill represents such an asset that is not separately identified.

Q3. What do You Mean by a Revaluation Account?

Ans. A revaluation account is a type of nominal account, that is prepared for the distribution and for the transfer of profits and losses which arises due to the increase and decrease of the book value of the assets and liabilities at the time of change in profit sharing ratio, at the time of admission of a partner, or the retirement of a partner also at the time of death of a partner.