Tranquilizers

What are Tranquilizers?

Tranquilizers can also refer to anti-anxiety medication. These are a term introduced in 1953 to describe drugs having a calming effect. In this current world full of stress and tension, people have lost themselves and are running behind the money. A huge part of them is suffering from depression and are taking antidepressants or tranquilizers to improve their condition with no prescriptions. Tranquilizers and analgesics are those drugs that act on the nervous system. They affect the transmission of messages that happen from nerves to receptors.

Tranquilizers meaning is given by, they are the chemical compounds that are so useful for the stress treatment and either for mild or severe mental diseases.

Tranquilizers induce a well-being sense in a person, thereby releasing him from tension, anxiety, stress, or irritability. They are one of the important components of sleeping pills.

There exist various types of tranquilizers, and each has different functioning modes.

For example, a tranquilizer that helps to uplift the mood is defined as noradrenaline. If the noradrenaline level is low, then the signal sending activity also becomes low, which in turn makes a person feel depressed. In those situations, tranquilizer drugs or antidepressant drugs can be used.

These drug types inhibit the action of those enzymes that catalyze noradrenaline degradation. When such enzymes are inhibited, noradrenaline slowly metabolizes, and thus it activates its receptors for a longer time duration, and so the depression effect is counteracted.


Classification of Tranquilizers

Tranquilizers are available in two variants which are,

  1. Minor Tranquilizers

  2. Major Tranquilizers

Minor Tranquilizers also referred to anxiolytics, used for sedation, and to treat anxiety. These drugs are called anti-anxiety medications these days.

Whereas Major Tranquilizers, also known as neuroleptics, were developed to treat the disorders of psychiatric, including schizophrenia. These tranquilizers combat hallucinations and other delusions. Usually prescribed for long terms, the significant Tranquilizers include phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes, rauwolfia alkaloids, and clozapine.

Like all other drugs, tranquilizers also have the potential for producing side effects, sometimes even when taken in prescribed dosages. Fewer dosages of mild tranquilizers may cause drowsiness and a loss of coordination resembling drunkenness. These reactions tend to rise when the patient starts the medication but develops later when an accumulation of the medication occurs. Significant mood depression can be a side effect of prolonged use of Tranquilizers.


Antiseptics

Antiseptics are one of the tranquilizers examples, and they are usually applied to the living tissues to prevent the growth of the microbes such as wounds and make the skin free from any disease.

Some examples of antiseptics are soframycin, furacine, and many more. Also, antiseptic soaps are available that are commonly used, and these soaps contain bithionol added to it. Boric acid is also an antiseptic element which is used for eyes.

Dettol, the most popular disinfectant used these days, is also a mixture of terpineol and chloroxylenol. Both tranquilizers and antiseptics are essential for a healthy survival of human beings.


Classification of Antidepressant Drugs

Antidepressants are the group of prescriptive medicines that treats depression. Also, they may be used to treat other health conditions as well. Their chemicals affect people in different ways. For this reason, there are several types of tranquilizer and a few of them are,


Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)

SSRIs affect the chemical in the human brain called serotonin. Usually, SSRIs are the first kind of antidepressant that Doctor prescribes. These drug types tend to have fewer side effects.

Types of SSRIs are,

  • Citalopram

  • Escitalopram

  • Fluoxetine


SSRIs Common Side Effects Include,

  • Dry mouth

  • Nausea

  • Headaches


Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)

SNRIs affect two chemicals in the human brain. They are norepinephrine and serotonin. The Doctor may prescribe these because they do not interact with other medicines that we use.

Types of SNRIs Include,

  • Duloxetine

  • Venlafaxine

  • Desvenlafaxine


Common Side Effects of SNRIs are,

  • Nausea (in the first two weeks especially)

  • Loss of appetite

  • Anxiety and nervousness


Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

MAOIs affect an enzyme of the human called monoamine. Typically these drugs are used as a last resort if the other types have not worked.

Types of MAOIs Include,

  • isocarboxazid

  • phenelzine

  • selegiline


MAOIs can have Severe Side Effects. Few of them are,

  • Weakness

  • Dizziness

  • Headaches

These also may cause harmful reactions when combined with specific foods or medicines (other antidepressants, cold or flu medicines). The reaction is known as “serotonin syndrome,” and they include,

  • Hallucinations

  • Changes in blood pressure

  • Agitation


Tricyclic Antidepressants

Tricyclic antidepressants affect three human brain chemicals. They are norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. It is one of the oldest antidepressant types. These are quite effective drugs but often used less because of increased side effects. They are not used for the older patients, one who have glaucoma, or for the men who have enlarged prostates.

Types of Tricyclic Antidepressants Include,

  • Amitriptyline

  • Clomipramine

  • Desipramine


Some Common Side Effects of Include,

  • Dry mouth

  • Blurred vision

  • Constipation

This type of antidepressant drugs can also affect our blood pressure and heart rate.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are Tranquilizers, Give Two Examples?

Some tranquilizers examples are phenelzine, noradrenaline, chlordiazepoxide, and iproniazid.

Neurologically, tranquilizers are active drugs. Also, they relieve stress, anxiety, excitement, irritability by inducing a well-being sense.

Few tranquilizers are relatively very mild in nature and suitable for tension relieving. Equanil is used to control hypertension and depression. We also have hypnotic barbiturates, which are the sleep producing agents. Some substances that are used as tranquilizers are serotonin and valium.

Moving on to antiseptics, these are the substances that prevent the growth of microorganisms.

2. Why Should Hypnotics Only be Used in the Treatment of Insomnia in the Short Term?

Hypnotics and sedatives like benzodiazepines should be used only for a maximum of four weeks when we need to treat short term insomnia.

The reason behind this is that they can cause tolerance in the body quickly, and therefore the more drugs are required to produce the same effects, which can lead to psychological problems of dependence on the drug. Also, this happens when withdrawing, it should be done gradually as the tolerance and dependence results in a burden on the patient, and becomes a bit harder for them to stop the drug. Also, it is used to reduce any possible withdrawal effects such as rebound insomnia.

Hypnotic medicines are the most dangerous drugs used to cure insomnia. Halcion drugs can make us sleep, walk, and do things you do not remember. These are classified as hypnotics because they help more than relieving anxiety or help insomnia.