Titanium Dioxide

What Is Titanium Dioxide?

Barium cation and anion of sulfate when combined together form titanium dioxide. TiO2 compound name is titanium dioxide. The molecular formula for titanium diode is TiO2. Titanium oxide is a mineral barite because it is a sulfate salt of barium. It is a white colored crystalline solid which is insoluble in water. It is an odorless powder and is only soluble in concentrated acids. 

TiO2 is a divalent, alkaline metal which is non-toxic and is used for medical purposes. It is commonly used in the production of natural gas and extraction of oil to get high-density drilling fluids by keeping the boreholes free of rocks. 


Titanium dioxide (TiO2) Structure


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The tetravalency of the Ti is balanced by forming double bonds with each of the oxygen atoms. Titanium dioxide is a covalent compound. The titanium dioxide’s chemical formula is TiO2.

Titanium Dioxide Properties

  • IUPAC name: Titanium dioxide or Titanium (IV) oxide

  • Chemical formula: TiO2

  • Molar Mass: 233.38 g/mol

  • Density: 4.5 g/cm3

  • Melting point: 1580 °C 

  • Boiling point: 1600 °C


Titanium Dioxide Uses

The pure titanium dioxide is a white, odourless crystalline powder. Titanium dioxide has been used for several purposes over the past years in the production of various things like plastics, printing inks, rubber, paints, coatings, floor coverings, roofing materials, toothpaste, cosmetics, water treatment agents, food colourants, pharmaceuticals, sunscreen, catalyst, etc. it is used as a radiopaque agent; it is used to test the pH of the soil; it is also used in the manufacturing of alloys. Titanium dioxide is used to diagnose certain disorders that include the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Titanium dioxide is also used in imaging of the GI tract during the barium meal. 

Titanium dioxide is produced in two forms to use for further production of various things. First is the primary form, which is the pigment grade titanium dioxide. It comprises over 98 per cent of the total production of the titanium dioxide. This form uses titanium dioxide’s excellent light-scattering properties in the applications where opacity and brightness are required. The other form of titanium dioxide is the ultrafine version. This form is used when properties like transparency, maximum ultraviolet absorption, etc. are required. 

  • Pigment-Grade Titanium Dioxide

The primary version of the titanium dioxide is used to give high opacity and brightness. This form of titanium dioxide is used for various applications, some of which have been given below:

  • Paints & coatings: Titanium dioxide helps in providing opacity and durability while ensuring the longevity of paint and to provide protection to the painted surface.

  • Plastics, rubber, and adhesives: Titanium dioxide helps in preventing the brittleness, cracking and fading that might occur due to the exposure to light. 

  • Paper: Titanium dioxide is used to make the paper whiter, brighter and opaque.

  • Cosmetics: Titanium dioxide is used in cosmetics to provide aid in hiding the blemishes and brightening the skin.


  • Ultrafine Grade Titanium Dioxide

The ultrafine version of the titanium dioxide is used in the production of the following products:

  • Catalysts: Titanium dioxide is often used as a support material for catalyst applications. It is majorly used in the automotive industry to remove harmful exhaust gas emissions and also in power stations to remove nitrous oxides.

  • Sunscreen: The small particle size of the ultrafine version of titanium dioxide not only helps in reflecting the visible light but also absorbs the UV light thus making a transparent barrier that protects the skin from the harmful sunlight rays. It has been found that using the sunscreens that contain titanium dioxide can aid in preventing the occurrence of skin cancer.


Solved Problems


Question 1. Is Titanium Dioxide Safe?

Answer:  Yes, titanium dioxide is safe to use and is therefore used in a variety of things like food colourants, toothpaste, sunscreens, cosmetics etc.

Question 2. What type of bond is present in Titanium Dioxide?

Answer: The titanium dioxide is bonded by a covalent bond. At the cathode, the compound’s oxygen atoms are reduced to form oxygen ions.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is titanium dioxide used for? Why is it used in toothpaste?

For many years, Titanium Dioxide has been incorporated in the manufacturing process for a wide range of consumer products and industrial goods. It is used as a brightening agent in paints, as a colouring agent in the food industry, in cosmetics, in sunscreens, coated fabrics and textiles, water treatment agents, soap, and in many other industrial applications.

Titanium dioxide has been used as a brightening agent for many years, and it helps in enhancing the whiteness of anything. Titanium dioxide is used in toothpaste to act as a whitening agent to aid in whitening the teeth and making them look brighter and better.


2. Is titanium dioxide an oxidizing agent? What are the dangers of using titanium dioxide?

Sewage photocatalysis primarily relies on the reaction to oxidation reactions. The sewage cleaning oxidation-reduction reaction is used to remove the organic waste material, and this reaction is accelerated using the titanium dioxide as it is a strong oxidizing agent.   

The International Agency for Research on Cancer has labelled titanium dioxide as having possibly carcinogenic effects on humans. The inhalation of the nano titanium dioxide particles can be carcinogenic and could also induce cell dysfunction and chronic inflammation. But several studies have established that there is no link in exposure to titanium dioxide and development of cancer in individuals.