# Spontaneity

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## Introduction to Spontaneity Chemistry

Spontaneity is part of the first law of thermodynamics. In this section, students can understand the fact associated with an isolated system's fixed energy level.Â Â

There is a direction of heat flow that can be elaborated by establishing a relation between the work done by the system or on the system. This is spontaneity in thermodynamics.

Spontaneous meaning in Chemistry is not that hard to understand. Many natural phenomena are having one straight path of heat flow. They do not have any limitations on their heat flow paths.Â

### What Is a Spontaneous Reaction?

A spontaneous chemical reaction is an irreversible process where you canâ€™t get the ingredients back without the external agents.Â Â

### Equation of Spontaneous Reaction

We can predict the spontaneity Chemistry of a reaction with the change in its total entropy. This is defined as the spontaneity of any process. Almost all types of chemical reactions come under this category.

Scientists also predicted that the change in enthalpy helps the increase or increase in the randomness of the chemical reactions. They also affect the molecular motions. This is not possible as entropy changes only possible due to spontaneity. Many other processes are also in the queue of participation.

Students can gain proper knowledge about Spontaneity Chemistry and spontaneous equations by studying Gibbâ€™s energy.Â

### Spontaneous Equation

Gibbâ€™s equation can be the best option to understand spontaneous reactions in chemical composition. It is a state function. Also, Gibbâ€™s equation is an extensive property. At constant temperature, Gibbâ€™s equation shows the energy change.Â

It can be expressed as,Â

Î”GsysÂ = Î”HsysÂ â€“ TÎ”Ssys

Here,Â

• Change in Gibbs energy of the system = Î”GsysÂ

• Change in enthalpy of the system = Î”HsysÂ

• Change in Entropy of the system = Î”SsysÂ

• Constant Temperature of the system = TÂ

Also, if we conduct a spontaneous process, the total change in entropy is always greater than zero.Â

Mathematical expression for the above spontaneous reaction meaning expression is

Î”SsysÂ + Î”Ssurr = Î”Stotal

Here,

• Î”Stotal= total change in entropy for the process

• Î”SsurrÂ = change in entropy of the surrounding

• Î”SsysÂ = change in entropy of the system

### What Is Spontaneous Process?

When the system is in a thermal equilibrium state, the change in temperature between the surroundings and the system is always zero.Â

i.e. dT = 0

Do you know how this is happening? It is due to the change of enthalpy. As the amount of enthalpy is lost by the system, the same amount is gained by the surrounding.Â

So, scientists have put forward the equations that stand for the change in entropy for both the system and the surrounding.

$\Delta S_{surr}=\frac{\Delta H_{surr}}{T}=- \frac{\Delta H_{sys}}{T}$

$\Delta S_{Total}=\Delta S_{sys}+\left ( -\frac{\Delta H_{sys}}{T} \right )$

Here, Î”HsurrÂ = enthalpy change of the surrounding

Î”HsysÂ = enthalpy change of the system

As expressed earlier,Â Î”Stotal> 0.

The change in entropy is always more than zero when it is a spontaneous process. So, we conclude that

TÎ”SsysÂ â€“ Î”Hsys > 0

Î”Hsysâ€“ TÎ”Ssys < 0

When we use Gibbâ€™s equation, it can be said that â€˜Î”Gsys< 0â€™.

### Conclusion

In a spontaneous chemical reaction, if we notice any energy change in Gibbâ€™s energy of the system as less than zero otherwise, it is not a spontaneous process.Â

It can be concluded that relation is also predicted for a spontaneous reaction.

When it is an exothermic reaction, the enthalpy of the system is negative. This is why it makes all exothermic reactions spontaneous.Â

When it is an endothermic reaction, Gibbsâ€™s free energy turns into negative. It happens in certain conditions only, such as when the temperature rises or the change in entropy is very high.