Question 1: What is a Strong Acid?
Answer: When acid is marked as a strong acid, it actually does not matter how powerful and how corrosive it can be. The strength of acid actually refers to the ability to release hydrogen ions into a solution. Strong acids are one which completely dissociates into their ions into the water, which means all of their molecules break up in a settlement. Strong acids produce at least one hydrogen cation(H+) per molecule. We can identify weak acids like it will dissociate less than 1%, which indicates that very few of their units will break up to release a hydrogen ion.
Question 2: Why are Acids Called Proton Donors?
Answer: Acids are chemical substances that donate H+ ions to bases. Since a hydrogen atom is an electron and a proton, so an H+ ion is just a proton; therefore, acid is a 'proton donor,' and a base is a 'proton acceptor.' The reaction between an acid and base is a proton transfer. Acids do not 'donate' hydrogen ions; they surrender them.
For example: HA(aq) + H2O(l) → H3O+(aq) + A-(aq)
The acid gives a proton (H) to the base (H2O) thus giving products of H3O (with extra proton) and A- (without one proton deducted). Hence, acids are called proton donors.