Magnetic Properties of Transition Elements

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Magnetic Transition Metals

The entire arrangement of inorganic chemical elements is generally distributed into non-metallic and metals. Depending upon the certainty that elements have positive and negative ions which help in determining the non-metal and metals. The category of metals belongs to the elements with positive ions while the category of non-metals belongs to the elements with negative ions. In the oxidation stage, some of the elements do not compromise the whole electronic configuration. These elements are generally called transition elements and it belongs to d-block elements. Magnetic behaviour is shown by several substances. These substances include paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and diamagnetic substances.

Magnetic Properties of d-block Elements

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In the periodic table, the magnetic property is shown by the d-block elements as the unpaired electrons are owned by the (n-1) d orbitals. The maximum magnetic behaviour can be achieved by the electrons if the elements have a higher number of unpaired electrons in the electronic configuration of (n-1) elements. Usually, paramagnetic behaviour is exhibited by the transition element ion and it can be attracted easily by the magnetic field.  

Trends of The d- block, Elements (Transition Elements)

  • The magnetic moment increases from 1 to 5 as soon as the unpaired electron numbers increase from 1 to 5. They will reach the verge of decreased diamagnetic and increased paramagnetic as a result.

  • The diamagnetic substances are those paired electrons that do not get attracted to a magnetic field. These d-block elements (transition elements) have paired electrons in (n-1) d elements.

  • Some metals contain permanent paramagnetic as they have high paramagnet. Therefore, these d-block elements (transition elements) are referred to as ferromagnetism. Cobalt and nickel are some of the best examples of ferromagnetism.

Magnetic Properties of Complexes of Transition Metals

The number of unpaired electrons present in the outermost cells will help in predicting the magnetic property of the element. An essential role is played by the atomic size and electronic configuration. Electronic spin can help in achieving the magnetism of any of the compounds and determination of the fact that to what extent the compound is magnetized by the number of unpaired electrons. 

To yield the magnets is the interesting fact of the compound. Magnetic behaviour is adopted by metal complexes because they have unpaired electrons. The quantum number is used to represent the spin of each electron which is represented as +½ or -½ respectively. Because the electrons are coupled to each other, the spin has a flat affect. A weak magnetic field is created in the case if each of these electrons gets unpaired or single. The paramagnetic effect gets increased due to the availability of a single electron.

Magnetic Properties of 3d Series Transition Elements

  • High boiling and melting points are achieved by the transition elements.

  • Due to the presence of colour ions, chemical organic complexes and coloured compounds are formed by these elements.

  • Rather than having paramagnetic behaviour, these elements have paramagnetic behaviour.

  • In the outermost shell of the transition elements, these elements have various valencies due to which they show various oxidation stages.

Magnetic Properties of First Transition Series

4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th group of the periodic table consists of the elements of the first transition series. Due to internal d-d transfers, this series consists of a coloured compound effect. Certain theories conclude magnetic properties. These theories include quantum mechanics, Lenz's curie.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. Comment Whether All the Transition Elements are Magnetic or Not?

In total, 38 elements are present in the 3rd group of the periodic table. Out of 38 elements, 12 of them belong to transition elements and all these elements have almost identical properties in comparison to the metals. Malleability and ductility are the tendencies that are seen in these elements. The valence electrons are exhibited by the transition elements and their interactions with other elements make them combine with other elements. Some changes in the electronic configuration are made by the electrons of the reacting elements. Due to these reasons, there are certain changes in the context of non-magnetic and magnetic behaviour. In the case of no unpaired electrons present, the magnetic behaviour of the transition elements loses as it creates in the external magnetic field. 

Q2. How to Find Out the Magnetic Properties of the Transition Elements?

It is quite tough to determine whether the transition element is paramagnetic or not. It can be determined by creating the electronic configuration of the compound. The paired and unpaired electrons lead by the configuration helps in determining. 

The paramagnetic and ferromagnetic behaviour can be seen if the elements hold the unpaired electrons in (n-1)d shells. For better understanding take the example of Zinc.

  • Zinc has the electronic configuration of 4S2 3 d10

  • There are no unpaired electrons seen after making the valence orbital.

  • Zinc will not exhibit paramagnetic behaviour due to the unavailability of unpaired electrons.