Magnetic Properties of Transition Elements

Dhristi JEE 2022-24

Magnetic Properties of Transition Elements - Properties of d-block Elements and Trends

The entire arrangement of inorganic chemical elements is generally distributed into non-metallic and metals. Depending upon the certainty that elements have positive and negative ions which help in determining the non-metal and metals. The category of metals belongs to the elements with positive ions while the category of non-metals belongs to the elements with negative ions. In the oxidation stage, some of the elements do not compromise the whole electronic configuration. These elements are generally called Transition Elements and they belong to d-block elements. Magnetic behavior is shown by several substances. These substances include paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and diamagnetic substances.


Transition Elements 

We come into contact with transition metals every day. Consider elemental iron. Iron is used in a variety of applications such as ships, buildings and cutlery. Some important Transition Element compounds are used in a similar way in our daily lives. A Transition Element can be defined as an element containing a dobital that is partially filled with its atom or simple ion. The d- block elements in groups 3 to 11 are called Transition Elements. Internal transition metals such as lanthanides and actinides are aliases for f-block elements. 


Transition metals react with non-metals such as oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, halogens, sulfur and carbon to form binary compounds. Some of these compounds are very important in the industry.


Magnetic Properties

An electron is a negatively charged particle that rotates around its nucleus and around its own axis. A magnetic field is generated by orbital motion and electron spin. Rotating an electron in orbit is very similar to passing an electric current in a closed circuit. Therefore,  unpaired electrons are considered to be micromagnets with a specific magnetic moment. Matter containing unpaired electrons in the magnetic field interacts with the applied magnetic field. As a result, attractive force acts and paramagnetism is exhibited. The number of unpaired electrons determines the magnitude of the magnetic moment. As the number of unpaired electrons increases, the magnetic moment increases and the paramagnetic behavior of the substance increases. 


For pairs of electrons,  each pair of electrons has opposite spins. The magnetic fields generated by the same pair of electrons are equal and opposite. Therefore, the magnetic field generated by one electron is canceled by the other electron. Therefore, the net effect of the magnetic moment is Zero. These types of materials are diamagnetic and are repelled by the applied magnetic field. 


Trends of the d- block, Elements (Transition Elements)

  • The magnetic moment increases from 1 to 5 as soon as the unpaired electron numbers increase from 1 to 5. They will reach the verge of decreased diamagnetic and increased paramagnetic as a result.

  • The diamagnetic substances are those paired electrons that do not get attracted to a magnetic field. These d-block elements (Transition Elements) have paired electrons in (n-1) d elements.

  • Some metals contain permanent paramagnetic as they have high paramagnet. Therefore, these d-block elements (Transition Elements) are referred to as ferromagnetism. Cobalt and nickel are some of the best examples of ferromagnetism.


Magnetic Properties of d-block Elements 

The magnetic properties of DBlock elements are determined by the number of unpaired electrons contained in them. There are two basic types of substances- Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic. 


Paramagnetic that is attracted to the magnetic field. This event is known as paramagnetism. On the other hand, there is also a substance called a diamagnetic substance that is repelled by a magnetic field. If a substance contains only a pair of electrons, the substance is diamagnetic. 

  1. Paramagnetic Substances 

Paramagnetism is experienced only when a substance contains one or more unpaired electrons. A material that is influenced by a magnetic field applied from the outside and forms a magnetic field induced from the inside in the path of the applied magnetic field. Paramagnetic properties occur in consideration of the proximity of unpaired electrons. Paramagnetic substances are substances that are attracted by a magnetic field. When a substance takes an eternal magnetic moment, it is called ferromagnetism, and its generation is called ferromagnetism.


  1. Diamagnetic Substances 

Diamagnetism results from the lack of unpaired electrons. Diamagnetic substances are substances that are repelled by magnetic fields. 


A substance that creates an induced magnetic field with respect to an externally applied magnetic field and, as a result, is repelled by the applied magnetic field. Diamagnetism occurs as a result of the absence of unpaired electrons. Most Transition Elements are paramagnetic in nature. 


Magnetic Properties of Complexes of Transition Metals

The number of unpaired electrons present in the outermost cells will help in predicting the magnetic property of the element. An essential role is played by the atomic size and electronic configuration. Electronic spin can help in achieving the magnetism of any of the compounds and determination of the fact that to what extent the compound is magnetized by the number of unpaired electrons. 


To yield the magnets is the interesting fact of the compound. Magnetic behavior is adopted by metal complexes because they have unpaired electrons. The quantum number is used to represent the spin of each electron which is represented as +½ or -½ respectively. Because the electrons are coupled to each other, the spin has a flat effect. A weak magnetic field is created in the case if each of these electrons gets unpaired or single. The paramagnetic effect increases due to the availability of a single electron.


Magnetic Properties of 3d Series Transition Elements

  • High boiling and melting points are achieved by the Transition Elements.

  • Due to the presence of color ions, chemical organic complexes and coloured compounds are formed by these elements.

  • Rather than having paramagnetic behavior, these elements have paramagnetic behavior.

  • In the outermost shell of the Transition Elements, these elements have various valencies due to which they show various oxidation stages.


Magnetic Properties of First Transition Series

The 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th group of the periodic table consists of the elements of the first transition series. Due to internal d-d transfers, this series consists of a coloured compound effect. Certain theories conclude magnetic properties. These theories include quantum mechanics, Lenz's curie.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Comment Whether All the Transition Elements are Magnetic or Not?

In total, 38 elements are present in the 3rd group of the periodic table. Out of 38 elements, 12 of them belong to transition elements and all these elements have almost identical properties in comparison to the metals. Malleability and ductility are the tendencies that are seen in these elements. The valence electrons are exhibited by the transition elements and their interactions with other elements make them combine with other elements. Some changes in the electronic configuration are made by the electrons of the reacting elements. Due to these reasons, there are certain changes in the context of non-magnetic and magnetic behaviour. In the case of no unpaired electrons present, the magnetic behaviour of the transition elements loses as it creates in the external magnetic field. 

2. How to Find Out the Magnetic Properties of the Transition Elements?

It is quite tough to determine whether the Transition Element is paramagnetic or not. It can be determined by creating the electronic configuration of the compound. The paired and unpaired electrons led by the configuration helps in determining. 


The paramagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior can be seen if the elements hold the unpaired electrons in (n-1)d shells. For better understanding take the example of Zinc.

  • Zinc has the electronic configuration of 4S2 3 d10

  • There are no unpaired electrons seen after making the valence orbital.

  • Zinc will not exhibit paramagnetic behavior due to the unavailability of unpaired electrons.

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