Electronic Configuration Rules
Before diving into group 15 elements electronic configuration, we must first understand the basic rules. The method by which an element’s electrons are arranged in their sub-shells and orbital shells is referred to as electronic configuration. Every atom is surrounded by electrons that move in an orbital path around the particle. So when an atom interacts with another particle, then the electrons on the outer side are the first ones to make contact. Also, when the outermost shell of an atom is not full of electrons, then that atom is reactive. The outermost electrons also affect the chemical properties of an element. These properties can be similar depending upon the same number of electrons in the outer shell.
We use electronic configurations of an element to tell whether it is stable or not. The atoms stability depends upon the energy levels and number of atoms in its orbital path. Hence, those atoms are stable, whose outermost shell is full of electrons. One of the primary examples of stable elements is noble gases. More often than not, we can also tell the reactivity of an element. There is a key to write the group 15 elements electronic configuration such as the electronic configuration of nitrogen. And that key is to remember these three basic rules Paulie’s exclusion principle, Hund’s law, and Aufbau’s principle. Now, let us study these electronic configuration rules and write group 15 elements electronic configuration.
Pauli’s Exclusion Principle
Wolfgang Pauli came up with Pauli’s exclusion principle for electrons in 1925. Now to understand the concept clearly, you must know these terms:
Quantum number = n
Azimuthal quantum number = m
Principle quantum number= l
The methodology to fill electrons in an atom is from lower energy levels to higher energy levels. According to Pauli’s exclusion principle, the electrons of an atom should not possess the same n, m, and l simultaneously. For instance, the n,m, and l for an electron in the same orbital path are the same. Then their magnetic quantum number would be the same as well, and hence they would possess opposite integer spins, i.e. ½ and -½. Pauli's exclusion principle does not hold for bosons (particles with integer spin). Since several bosons are capable of holding the same quantum state. Also, this principle helps get a clear picture of orbital shells of an atom.
According to Hund's rule, when filling orbitals with energy levels, an electron looks to fill subshells with the same energy levels before pairing them with other electrons. In other words, all the orbitals must be filled with single electrons first. By filling all the orbitals with individual particles having the same energy levels allows maximizing the total spin. This process is due to all single filled electrons having the same integer spin.
Aufbau's principle states that while filling the orbitals with electrons in an atom, it should always be in a manner of increasing energy level. In other words, the orbitals with low energy levels are to be filled with electrons first and then the orbitals with higher energy levels. You can use this principle correctly in the first eighteen elements of the periodic table. And after that, the efficiency will start to decrease.
Electronic Configuration of Group 15 Elements
Group 15 in the periodic table consists of five elements. They are also known as nitrogen group elements. The total number of valence electrons in group 15 is five. Expanding on the electronic configuration rules, we can write the Electronic configuration of group 15 elements. Let us write the Electronic configuration of nitrogen, Electronic configuration of phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.
Electronic configuration of nitrogen:- Nitrogen is one of the two metallic gases in the group 15 elements. Its atomic number is seven, and its symbol is N. the nitrogen atom has s orbital with two electrons and p subshell with three electrons. This configuration is because to pair with other electrons, and the p subshell needs to be half-filled. Its electronic configuration is as follows:- [HE]2s22p3
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Electronic configuration of phosphorus:- Phosphorus is another metallic gas in group 15 elements. It has an atomic number of fifteen, and its symbol is P. The electronic configuration of phosphorus is as follows:- [NE]3s23p3
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Electronic configuration of arsenic:- Arsenic is the third element in the group 15 elements. Its atomic number is thirty-three, and its symbol is As. Its electronic configuration is as follows:- [AR]3d104s24p3
Electronic configuration of antimony:- Antimony is the fourth element in the group 15 elements. Its atomic number is fifty-one, and its symbol is Sb. Its electronic configuration is as follows:- [KR]4d105s25p3
Electronic configuration of bismuth:- Bismuth is the last element in the group 15 elements. Its atomic number is eighty-three, and its symbol is Bi. Its electronic configuration is as follows:- [XE]4f145d106s26p3
Did You Know?
Atoms that are in a neutral state have the same number of protons and electrons in its nuclei.
1. What are Paramagnetic and Diamagnetic Atoms?
Whenever the total spin of any two electrons in the same orbital is zero, then those electrons are known as diamagnetic electrons. And diamagnetic atoms are those that possess diamagnetic electrons. Whenever an orbital has a single particle or possesses net spin, then those electrons are known as paramagnetic electrons. And paramagnetic atoms are those atoms that own at least one paramagnetic electron.
2. What are the Flaws in Aufbau’s Principle?
The vital shortcoming in Aufbau's principle is that it only holds or is accurate when we decide the orbital energy between different elements or given elements. This principle limits orbits by making boxes of energy levels for one or two electrons. But the energy level is dependent on all the atoms in a particle such as ions. We can not accurately find the solution for more than one electron, so we move forward with approximations.