The matter is any entity that has mass and occupies space. There are different types of matter that we may find around us and they can exist in any of the three forms- solid, liquid, or gas, at a given point in time.
Matters not only have different forms but are also made up of tiny particles. These particles are so tiny that it is not possible to witness them with the naked eye. There are different characteristic of matter that we have discussed below. Also, there are seven states of matter that one may find. These seven states are like solids, liquids, gases, ionised, plasma, quark-gluon plasma, Bose-Einstein condensate and fermionic condensate. Matter includes atom and any particles that act that they both have rest mass and volume.
We are aware that every substance around us is made up of tiny particles that are called matter. So these particles have some characteristics and are capable of influencing the state of properties. These properties can be both physical and chemical properties of the substance. Here we are going to reflect on three characteristics of matter.
Three characteristics of particles of matter are as follows:
The particles inside have space between them
The particles are continuously moving which means that they are constantly in motion
The particles attract each other
In every particle matter, there is a small void or space. These characteristics can be defined as the concept that supports the solubility of a substance in other substances. Now, in order to understand or to say illustrate that one substance is soluble in other substances, take a glass of water and put a teaspoon of salt and sugar and then mix them properly. Next, you will witness that the water is still looking clear. The reason why it looks clean is that the particles of salt and sugar get into the interparticle spaces between the particles of water. This fact proves that there are spaces between particles of a substance. Now, if you add more sugar to it, you will notice that it will dissolve until the entire available void between the water particles gets filled.
We have learned above that particles are always moving continuously. The reason why particles in the matter show the continuous movement is that they possess kinetic energy that helps in this form of movement. Some of the common examples of these characteristics of matter can be understood f we notice the spread of the ink in a beaker glass, smell of incense sticks and similar things as such that illustrates that particles of a substance are continuously moving.
Particles in the matter are always on move. Now, if the particles of two different matters intermix on their own, then that state will be referred to as diffusion. When the temperature is increased, the diffusion of these particles inside the substance becomes fast. The reason why it becomes fast is that an increase in the temperature also increases the kinetic energy of the particles. This makes them move vigorously.
Yes, the particles in matter attract each other. For instance take an iron rod, a pen or a stick of chalk. Next, try to break each of them one by one. Observe which item was easy to break? You will find that the iron rod is much stronger and hard to break than the other two substances. This is because the particles inside them are held by the interparticle force of attraction. This interparticle force of attraction is present in all the substance that creates the attraction between the particles. So, in order to break anything we are required to overcome the force. The strength required differs from substance to substance.
There are two forms of things that determine the physical state of the matter primarily. These two things are kinetic energy and interparticle force of attraction.
We know that everything we see around us is matter. They have mass and occupies space. However, it is important to understand all matter does not have the same physical properties. One of the common examples of this fact is that salt particles are soluble in water while sand particles are insoluble. So these factors can be stated as the physical properties of matter.
We can do an experiment to determine the physical properties of matter. At first, take four to five crystals of potassium permanganate. Now dissolve them in the water of 300 ml. Next, in 100 ml of pure water kept in a separate beaker, pour 20ml of the solution. Repeat the above method in 20 ml of the solution in the same 100 ml of pure water.
Keep diluting the solution and repeat the process 8 to 10times and observe the change in colour, of the last solution. It will turn pink in colour. Therefore it can be concluded that potassium permanganate even in the least amount can change the solution's colour. Thus, by the implication of these experiments, it can understand that matter can be broken into million small pieces which are indestructible in nature.
The physical properties of matter are as follows:
Matters can be broken into millions of small pieces to tiny pieces and further.
Everything around is matter. The matter has mass and occupies space.
Matter exists in three states which are solids, liquids and gas. For example, ice is solid, water is liquid, and steam is the gaseous form of water. So in all three states matter exists.
The other states in which matter is said to exist are plasma, fermionic condensates, quark-gluon plasma and so on.
Often people get confused between mass and matter. However, two are not the same thing. It means that any physical substance that we see around us is matter. On the other hand, mass is a quantitative property of matter and is not a substance. The opposite of matter is anti-matter while there is no such opposite of mass.
The particle theory of matter is also known as the kinetic theory of matter. It states that all matter consists of tiny particle which is in a continuous motion. The particle theory helps us in understanding property and behaviour of the material.
1. What Determines The Movement of The Particles In A Matter?
As we know, particles inside a matter are on a constant move. The degree of movement is dependent on their amount of energy and also with their relationship on the other particle. These particles inside the matter are atoms, molecules and ions.
2. Define How Particles Are Packed In Three Different Forms of Matter.
The three different forms in which matter can exist are solid, liquids and gas. In solid, the particles are closely packed together. Moreover, they are strongly attracted to each other. They are fixed positions and they do vibrate. On the other hand, in liquids, the particles are fairly packed with the minimal attraction between them. They can move in all the directions but that is to an extent due to limited attraction particles. Lastly, in gases, the particles have little or no attraction between them. They are free to move in all the directions and that is the reason why they collide with each other. This is the reason why they are widely spaced out.
3. How Would You Demonstrate The Relationship Between The State of Matter And Kinetic Energy?
We can take a soda bottle for example and shake it well. The shaking of the soda bottle will shake the carbon dioxide to come out of the soda and convert into gas. The gas will then fizz out of the bottle and spread into the surrounding atmosphere. This reflects that particles have sufficient kinetic energy to spread. Next, if the bottle is poured in a table, it will form a puddle which would then state that kinetic energy has the capability to slide over each other but not entirely to be pulled apart from each other.
4. What Determines The State of The Matter?
The kinetic energy that the particles possess identifies the state of matter. The states of matter are solids, liquids and gas. Particles in solids have the least amount of kinetic energy whereas on the other hand particles in liquid has the most amount of kinetic energy. The energy of motion is known as kinetic energy and its theory tells us that particles in the matter are in constant motion