Barium Oxide

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What is Barium Oxide?

Barium oxide, BaO, also known as Barium monoxide or Barium protoxide or Calcined Baryta, is a hygroscopic or moisture absorbing compound, which is non-flammable in nature. It has a cubic structure and is extensively used in Cathode ray tubes, crown glass, catalysts, and as a dying agent for solvents. Barium oxide (BaO) consumption can be fatal. BaO is the symbol of Barium Oxide.


What is the Formula for Barium Oxide?

Barium oxide (BaO) is formed by the oxidization of Barium salts such as barium carbonate, so the barium burns in oxygen to produce Barium oxide. Therefore, the chemical formula of Barium Oxide is BaO.

The chemical reaction for the generation of Barium Oxide is as follows.

2Ba + O2 → 2BaO


Structure of Barium Oxide

Barium Oxide has a cubic structure, the picture below represents barium oxide structure (BaO), in which it can be clearly seen that one ion of barium takes part in the reaction, and both the ions combine in order to form barium oxide. So, barium gets oxidized to form Barium oxide.                                     

The total monoisotopic mass of Barium oxide is 153.9 g/mol. Here, the number of hydrogen bond acceptors is one whereas hydrogen bond donors are zero, so it can be said that the compound has one covalently bonded unit.


Properties of Barium Oxide (BaO)

Barium Oxide, also known as baria, is a non-flammable, white hygroscopic compound that is formed when a barium salt is oxidized. Here are some properties of Barium oxide (BaO).

  • Barium Oxide Formula: Now, what is the chemical formula for Barium Oxide? The barium oxide chemical formula is BaO, as it is formed by the oxidization of barium salts. The formula for barium oxide is derived from the following equation. 

2Ba + O2 → 2BaO

  • Molar Mass: The total molecular mass of Barium oxide sums up to 153.326 g/mol.

  • Appearance: The barium oxide appears to be a white solid powdered substance that appears when a barium salt is oxidized to get barium oxide.

  • Density: The density of barium oxide is 5.72 g/cm3.

  • Chemical Name: Barium oxide has different chemical names such as Barium monoxide, barium protoxide, and Calcined baryta.

  • Melting Point: The melting point of barium oxide is 1,923 ᐤC or 3,493 ᐤF, or 2196 K.

  • Boiling Point: The boiling point of barium oxide is 2,000ᣞC, 3,630ᣞF, or 2,270 K.

  • Solubility in Water: Barium oxide is soluble in water at the rate of 3.48 g/100 mL at 20ᣞC and 90.8 gm/ 100 mL at 100ᣞC.

  • Solubility: Barium oxide is soluble in ethanol, dilute mineral acids, and alkalies. It is not soluble in acetone and liquid ammonia.


Production of Barium oxide

Barium oxide or barium monoxide is prepared by heating barium carbonate(BaCO3). It may also be prepared by the thermal decomposition of the Barium Nitrate (Ba(NO3)2) compound. It is often prepared by the decomposition of other Barium salts. The chemical reactions for the generation of the compound barium oxide are as follows.

2Ba + O2 → 2BaO

BaCO3→ BaO + CO2

In the above reaction, the barium carbonate (BaCO3) is heated and is decomposed to obtain Barium oxide, and during the reaction carbon dioxide is released. 


Uses of Barium Oxide

Barium Oxide is a unique white-coloured compound that has the capacity to absorb moisture from the surrounding at room temperature. For this reason, it is used as an absorbent in many chemical reactions. Now, let us learn about BaO uses (Barium oxide).

  • Barium oxide is used as a coating for hot cathodes, such as in those of cathode ray tubes.

  • Barium oxide is also used in the production of optical crown glass. Before Barium oxide, lead oxide was used in the production of optical crown glass but it was observed that lead oxide raised the dispersive power which resulted in difficulty, but barium oxide raised the refractive index of the optical crown glass without affecting the dispersive power.

  • Barium Oxide is extensively used as an ethoxylation catalyst in the reaction of ethylene oxide and alcohols, which generally takes place at 150 and 200 ᐤC.

  • It is used as a source of pure oxygen through heat fluctuation, as it readily decomposes to BaO2 by the formation of a peroxide ion.

  • It is used in the process of Isomer separation.

  • It is extensively used in fuel production and as a reducing agent.

  • It works as an excellent oxidizing agent.

So far, we learned that Barium oxide is a white unique chemical compound that can absorb water molecules from the surrounding at room temperature. BaO is the formula of Barium oxide. It is formed when we heat barium salts such as barium carbonate. It is also used as a drying agent for solvents.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the safety issues for Barium Oxide?

Ans. Barium oxide is a hazardous and toxic compound that causes irritation if it comes in contact with the skin or eyes. Inhalation or swallowing of barium oxide fumes can cause nausea, diarrhea, or skin infection. It can also cause muscle paralysis, which can eventually cause death. Suppose a person ingests or comes in contact with barium oxide, he should immediately be given medical attention, or else it may cause various other health issues leading to death. Barium oxide should never be released into the environment as it is harmful to plants and animals.

2. What are the Chemical properties of Barium Oxide?

Ans. The chemical properties of Barium oxide are as follows.

What is the Chemical name for Barium oxide?

Baria, Calcined baryta or Barium monoxide or Barium protoxide.

What is the Chemical formula for Barium Oxide?

The chemical formula barium oxide is BaO.

What is the molecular weight of Barium Oxide?

The molecular weight is  5.72 g/cm3.

What is the Boiling point of BaO?

The boiling point is  ~ 2,000ᣞC.

What is the Melting point of BaO?

The melting point is 1,923 ᐤC.