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NCERT Books for Class 10 Science Chapter 3

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Last updated date: 24th Feb 2024
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NCERT Books for Class 10 Science - Metals and Non-metals - Free PDF Download

Learning is made simpler with free NCERT Books available for download on Vedantu.com. Students can refer to and download the Chapter on Class 10 Chapters 3 Metals and Non-Metals from the Vedantu website.  Learning is simplified with quicker downloads, saving time for the students at Vedantu. 


How Can the Students Ascertain All the Details about Metals and Non-Metals?

The Class 10 Chapters 3 of Metals and Non-Metals prepared by NCERT enables the students to have a clear understanding of the subject. The Books of NCERT have all the solutions to the possible questions asked in every chapter. 

The answers or solutions to the questions asked at the end of each chapter are prepared and framed by highly experienced, well-qualified professors and tutors in the respective fields.

The matter and its content prepared in the Class 10 Chemistry Chapters are straightforward and to the point. The contents formulated are easy to comprehend.

Appropriate diagram points to remember, step by step procedures, shortcut to numerical problems and tricks to remember the formulae and chemical reactions are prepared so as to grasp quickly and with ease.

The NCERT Exemplar Question format provides an overview of the main concepts of the chapter, making you well versed with important chemical equations and balancing them wherever necessary.


Key Takeaways of the Class 10 Chapters Metals and Non-Metals 

  • All information, whether they are diagrams, symbols or equations are authentic and simple.

  • The Class 10 NCERT Book on the Class 10 Chapters Metals and Non-Metals have all answers to the questions asked at the end of each chapter. 

  • There are solutions printed between the lessons for practice.

  • The matter and its content prepared in the Class 10 Chemistry Chapters are straightforward and to the point. The content prepared and designed is quite easy to comprehend.

  • The solutions provided at the end of the chapters can be used as a reference for competitive exams. 

  • The students can refer to this as a guide for step-by-step study with neatly labelled diagrams, shortcuts and tips to tackle complex or tough questions easily.

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Metals and Non-Metals Definition & Properties

Metals 

Metals are elements that conduct heat and electricity, which are malleable and ductile. Some of the metals are Iron (Fe), Aluminium (Al), Silver (Ag), Copper (Cu),  Gold (Au), Platinum (Pt), Lead (Pb), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), etc. 

Metals are elements that form positive ions by losing electrons. And so, they are labelled as Electropositive Elements. 


Physical Properties of Metals

  • Hardness: Most of the metals are hard, except alkali metals, such as sodium, potassium; lithium, etc. which are very soft metals. These can be cut by using a knife.

  • Strength: Most of the metals are strong and have high tensile strength. Because of this, big structures can be formed using metals, such as copper (Cu) and iron (Fe). (Except Sodium (Na) and potassium (K) which are soft metals).

  • State: Metals are solid at room temperature except for mercury (Hg).

  • Sound: Metals produce ringing sound, so, metals are called Sonorous. The sound of metals is also known as Metallic sound. This property is used to make musical instruments from metal wires. 

  • Conduction: Metals serve as good conductors of heat and electricity. Electric wires are made of metals like copper and aluminium.

  • Malleability:  Metals can be beaten into a thin sheet. Because of this property of malleability, iron is used in making big ships.

  • Ductility: With this property, the metals can be drawn into thin wire. 

  • Melting and Boiling Point: Metals have generally high melting and boiling points with the exception of sodium and potassium metals with low melting and boiling points.)

  • Density: Most of the metals have a high density.

  • Colour: With the exception of gold and copper, most of the metals are grey in colour. 

 

Non Metals 

Non-metals are the elements not conducting electricity and are neither malleable nor ductile. Non-metals form negative ions by gaining an electron and accordingly also known as Electronegative Elements.

Examples: Carbon (C), Sulphur (S), Phosphorous (P), Silicon (Si), Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Neon (Ne) and Argon (Ar), etc.


Physical properties of Non-Metals

  • Hardness: Non-metals are not hard, but generally soft.  It means they can be cut by knife easily. An exception is a diamond which is the hardest naturally occurring substance.

  • State: Non-metals may be solid, liquid or gas.

  • Lustre: Non-metals possess a dull appearance, i.e. they are not shiny, with the exception of Diamond and iodine.

  • Sonority: Non-metals are not sonorous; when we strike them, they do not make any sound. 

  • Conduction: Non-metals are bad conductors of heat and electricity with the exception of. Graphite, an allotrope of carbon which is a good conductor of electricity 

  • Malleability and ductility: Non-metals are brittle and they break down into pieces when hammered.  They cannot be drawn into wires. They are also not malleable meaning they cannot be hammered into thin sheets.

  • Melting and boiling point: Non-metals are characterised by generally low melting and boiling points.

  • Density: Most of the non-metals possess low density.

  • Non-metals have low tensile strength. It means they cannot hold heavyweights. 

  • Colour: Non-metals are seen in many colours.

 

Table showing major differences between Metals and Non-Metals

Serial No. 

Property 

Metal 

Non-Metal 

Exceptions 

1

Malleability 

Malleable 

Not malleable 

-

2

Ductility 

Ductile 

Not ductile 

-

3

Brittle 

Not brittle 

Brittle 

-

4

Conductivity 

Good conductor of heat and electricity 

Poor conductor of heat and electricity

Diamond – A non-metal but good conductor of heat.

Graphite – A non-metal but good conductor of electricity. 

5

Lustre

Lustrous 

Dull 

Diamond and Iodine – non-metals but lustrous. 

6

Strength 

High tensile strength 

Low tensile strength 

Sodium and Potassium are metals but have low tensile strength. 

7

Sonority 

Sonorous 

Not sonorous 

-

8

Hardness 

Hard 

Soft 

Sodium and Potassium are metals but are soft and can be cut by a knife. 

Diamond is a non-metal but very hard substance. It is the hardest naturally occurring substance known. 

9

Reaction with oxygen 

Metal + Oxygen 🡪 Metal oxide 

2Mg + O2 🡪 2MgO


Non-metal + Oxygen 🡪 Non-metal oxide

S + O2 🡪 SO2


-

10

Reaction with water 

Metal + Water 🡪 Metal hydroxide + hydrogen  

Na + H2O 🡪 NaOH + H2


No reaction with water 

-

11

Reaction with acid 

Metal + Acid 🡪 Metal salt + hydrogen  

Mg + 2HCl 🡪 MgCl2 + H2


Non-metals do not react with dilute acid but react with concentrated acid. 

C + conc. 4HNO3 🡪 CO2 + 4NO2 + 2H2O

-

12

Reaction with base 

Metal + Base 🡪 Metal salt + hydrogen  

Al + NaOH 🡪 NaAlO2 + H2 


React with strong bases and do not produce hydrogen gas. 

4S + 8NaOH 🡪 Na2SO4 + 3Na2S + 4H2O (At >600 ℃)

-

13

Displacement reaction 

More reactive metal displaces less reactive metal from its salt. 

Iron is more reactive than Cu.

CuSO4 + Fe 🡪 FeSO4 + Cu


More reactive non-metal displaces less reactive non-metal from its salt.

Br is more reactive than Iodine. 

2KI + Br2 🡪 2KBr + I2

 

-

14

Nature of oxides 

Basic 

Acidic 

-

15

The action of oxides on litmus paper 

Metal oxides turn red litmus paper into the blue. 

Non-metal oxides turn blue litmus paper into the red. 

-

16

Reactions of oxides with water 

Metal oxides react with water and form corresponding hydroxides. 

MgO + H2O 🡪 Mg(OH)2


Non-metal oxides react with water and form acids. 

SO2 + H2O 🡪 H2SO3


-


The Best Method to learn Chapters Metals and Non-Metals in Class 10

It is always advisable to read with full concentration as the chapter you would be studying is new. It will be a good practice to split the chapter into headings and subheadings for better understanding.

If you are nearing the exam dates with little or no time for the exams, it would be ideal if you read the whole chapter once and clear all doubts before writing down headings and subheadings. If possible, make flowcharts to learn and memorize faster. 

The key to learning this vast but interesting topic is to understand and practise rather than mugging up just before the test or exam. This may sound difficult at first, but the more you practise drawing structures, you become familiar with structures and formulae metals and non-metals and their properties.

To begin with, you need to be aware of all symbols of the elements. Next, learn all functional groups and write down the names of the compounds with their structural formula. You should be able to name a compound from its given formula. 

It is important to study all the allotropes of carbon, tetravalency and catenation thereby understanding the bonding of carbon and its compounds.

  • Chemistry Course of Metals and Non-Metals may sound easy for many, but the study of atomic structure, valence and formulae is a matter of concern for some.  Besides, the questions and problems listed at the end of each chapter, related as they are to the real world and everything in this universe should be answered regularly. 

  • The Class 10 NCERT Exemplar consists of model solutions to all questions in the NCERT Textbooks. The exemplars aid the students in completing assignments and simultaneously doing well in the exams. 

  • With step by step solutions with detailed explanations, the exemplars are highly beneficial in understanding clearly the different concepts of Chemistry and the related problems. The exemplars also aid the students to enhance their reasoning and analytical skills. 

  • By registering for Chemistry tuitions on the Vedantu.com website, all students can clear their doubts enabling them to score highly in their examinations. Chapter-wise solutions and tricks to master the subjects are also available on Vedantu.com.

FAQs on NCERT Books for Class 10 Science Chapter 3

1. What is the best and fast way to score high in Class 10 Chemistry?

Study of Chemistry Course considered difficult by some students can be made quite easy with a great deal of practice and effort. For instance, solving the question papers of previous years within defined time limits goes a long way in this direction. In addition, answering model question papers from time to time helps you understand the various possibilities of framing questions and how to answer them. 

  • You will also get familiar with various types of questions and the formats of the question papers asked. This also enhances your problem-solving abilities, achieving greater speed and accuracy in solving difficult questions. As a result, your time management skills will greatly improve equipping you with greater competence in tackling tough questions.  

  • Jotting down and remembering important formulae, definitions and equations is a matter of great importance in the study of Chemistry. It is also necessary to comprehend the derivations of important formulae and equations and practise them regularly. You may also adopt your own shortcuts and methods to master them and reproduce them wherever necessary by committing them to memory. 

  • Preparing your own notes as per the syllabus and revising them regularly is a vital step for understanding the concepts and to answer the questions correctly without omitting the important points and solving accurately the problems asked. It also helps in remembering the various steps and methods involved in accurately solving the mathematical problems in Chemistry.  

  • Discussions with friends and tutors, wherever possible, will also help you in clearing doubts relating to different topics. 

2. Where and what to refer to for Class 10 Chemistry of Metals and Non-Metals Subject?

Learning is made simpler with free NCERT Books, easily available for download on Vedantu. Students can refer and download the Class 10 Chapters 3 of Metals and Non-Metals from the Vedantu website. Learning is simplified and made easy with quicker downloads at Vedantu, saving the precious time of the students. 


By registering for Chemistry tuition on the Vedantu website, the student will be able to clear his/her doubts and score high in their examinations. Chapter-wise solutions and tricks to master the subjects are also available on Vedantu.com.

3. How to prepare for the Class 10 Chemistry exams?

The availability of Class 10 Chemistry of NCERT from the Vedantu.com website enables students to acquire authentic information on the subject. It also provides learning methods in well-structured formats to ensure a proper understanding of the concepts. Revision Notes and Important Questions can easily be found at our Vedantu website or the App. By studying the Notes and attempting important questions with regular practice will enable you to score highly in all the examinations. All the study materials provided on the website are free and can be availed free of cost.

4. How to download the PDF of the Class 10 Chemistry Question Paper for practice?

The students just need to sign in and would be directed to the download page. This page would have a PDF link. You or the student just needs to click the PDF button and practise.

5. What are some tips to top the Class 10 Chemistry Exams on Metals and Non-Metals?

Some tips are:

  • Visualize and understand fully the topic concerned in the textbooks. Begin by learning topics covered in your Chemistry Syllabi such as metals, acids, bases and salts to see how they relate to real life as well. 

  • The use of Mnemonics enables solving and memorizing problems with ease. The Mnemonics tool helps the students to be creative and retain important topics covered and taught.  

  • Always try to balance all the equations related to the topic. Writing chemically balanced equations irrespective of the questions asked would help the examiner to relate better. 

  • Do not take simple topics for granted. Also do not skip topics covered in the Chemistry Syllabus.

  • The study from NCERT Books that have solutions and properly framed questions at the end of each chapter.