Definition of Hawk

Hawk birds are a group of medium-sized diurnal raptors in the falcon family. Hawk birds are widely distributed and vary greatly in size. The subfamily Accipitrinae includes goshawk, sparrow, sharp hawk, etc. This subfamily consists mainly of forest birds with long tails and high vision. Their method of hunting is very sudden, they track down the enemy and then suddenly grapes onto it from their hidden habitat. In the United States, members of the Buteo group are also known as hawks. These types of hawks are known as vultures in other parts of the world. Buteos usually have broad wings and a sturdy figure. Their wings are relatively large, their tails are shorter, and they can fly longer than hawk-billed birds in open areas. Buteos or the white hawks drop or swoop at their prey instead of quickly chasing them laterally. 

About Hawks

The terms accipitrine hawk and buteonine hawk are used to distinguish the types of areas where hawk applies to both. In areas where vultures prefer the Ding Yellow hawks, the term real hawk is sometimes used for accipitrine hawks. All these groups are members of the hawk family, including hawks and vultures, as well as kites, harriers, and hawks. The common names of some birds include the term hawk, which reflects traditional usage rather than taxonomy. For example, some people might call the Osprey "Osprey" or the Peregrine Falcon "Duck hawk." These are some different types of hawks. 

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Migration of Hawks 

Like most birds, different types of hawks migrate in autumn and spring. Different types of hawks choose different times to migrate in each season. The autumn migration season starts in August and ends in mid-December. Studies have shown that the migration distance is longer than others. Long-distance commuters often start in early autumn, while short-distance commuters start much later. Therefore, the farther the distance, the earlier the bird will begin its journey. Studies on the speed and efficiency of hawks black migration indicate that it is best for hawks to reach their destination as soon as possible. This is because the first bird to arrive has priority in choosing a mate, living area, food, and survival needs. The earlier a bird starts to migrate, the more likely it is to complete the journey safely. Studies have shown that birds have more body fat when they start migrating and before they leave than when they arrive at their destination. One of the most important parts of hawk migration is the flight direction because the direction or path chosen by the bird will greatly affect its migration. The wind is a variable because it can make the bird deviate from its course or push it in the right direction, depending on the direction of the wind. To ensure safer travel, hawks try to avoid large swaths of water in spring and autumn by drifting around the lake or flying along the border. Hawkwatching is a citizen science activity that monitors migration and hawk flying and provides data to the scientific community. 

Habitat of Hawks

There are different types of hawks that live in different habitats. The red-tailed hawk is the most common hawk in North America. Past observations have shown that although hawks can easily adapt to any environment, hawks prefer open habitats. Hawks generally like to live in places such as deserts and fields, probably because it is easier to find prey. Because they can live anywhere, they can be found in mountainous plains and humid tropical regions. Hawks have been found in Central America, the West Indies, and Jamaica. 

Behavior of Hawks 

From the early years of the hawk's life, its parents feed it until it leaves the nest. Although the baby hawk is still in the chick stage, it will leave the nest at six weeks of age. Once the hawk's black bird grows up, it will start hunting. Hawks use their claws to kill prey and capture it. The falcon uses its claws to catch prey but uses its beak instead of its claws to kill small animals. The hawk’s favorite hunting time is usually when the day gets dark before nightfall. Although hawks are known as ferocious predators, some are gentle and quiet. When flying, the hawk quickly flaps its wings and then uses this power to glide smoothly and gracefully through the air. After careful analysis of the idea of ​​grouping into groups during migration, it was concluded that it is an exchange tool for birds and other animals to increase survival. Observers have clearly seen that hawks that fly in groups have a better chance of survival than those that travel alone. 

Breeding in Hawks 

Hawks black is known for its unique mating season. The method used by hawks to breed is different from most. The male and female will fly together in a circular motion. Once they reach a certain height, the male will rush towards the female, and then they will climb back to this height. The two birds will repeat this process until the male bird catches the female bird and they begin to fall freely to the ground. Within a year, a female hawk will lay about five eggs. Both males and females will care for the eggs for about a month until they hatch. Males and females build nests before the mating season and improve together during nesting season. These two birds usually build their nests before mating. Some species of hawks tend to be monogamous and spend their entire lives with the same mating partner.

Eyesight in Hawks

Hawks are a tetrachromat one with four types of color receptors in the eye, like most birds. These are not only visible areas but also the ability to recognize ultraviolet light. Another adaptation allows the detection of polarization or magnetic fields. This is a large number of photosensitive members of the retina, and a large number of nerves that connect these receptors to the brain, and the built-in grease that helps to expand their vision. 

Hawk Wings

Like other tetrapods, the anterior tip of the birds consists of the shoulder with upper shear, and forearm with radius and ulna. The hand of birds is strongly transformed. Some of the bones are decreased and others are merged with each other. Three-finger bones are attached to them. A vanguard is a group of feathers that act as an Alala-plane slat. This finger usually has a large bone, the next two, and one but some birds have another bird with the first two nails of the fingers. Hawk tail also helps in flying. 


Wings Blade 

The shape of the feathers is important when determining the flight capacity of the bird. Several forms are compatible with different exchanges with advantages, such as speed, low energy, and maneuverability. Two important parameters are the aspect ratio and wing load. The aspect ratio is the range ratio against the average number of the code or the width in the wing area.  

Most types of bird turns can be classified into four types and falling between two of the types. These types of wings are elliptical feathers, fast wings, high-looking wings, and grooved wings. 


Elliptical Wings

Technically, oval feathers are present in oval wings. Some birds have vague and ellipticals that contain high cluster wings of albatross. This term is convenient, but it may be more accurate to refer to the curve conical with a very small radius in suggestions. Many small birds have low vertical and lateral relationships with oval feathers, which allows spaces to be observed that are confined in dense vegetation. As such, they are common for forests such as acceptor hawks. They are also common in species that use quick takeoff to avoid predators, such as pheasants. 

High-speed Wings 

High-speed wings are sharpened short and sharp wings, and fast-wing tits are energy-free. This type of flight is used by birds with the speed of the fastest wing, the palatine, and most ducks. For different purposes, the same wing shape is used by Auks bird species. The pilgrim falcon has the highest diving rate of 242 mph. The fastest straight feed flight is 105 mph scrap spinal glue.  


The Largest Hawk 

The ferruginous hawk, Buteo regalis, is a large bird of prey, belonging to the broad-winged bird species. An old colloquial name is thick iron legs because it is similar to the closely related thick-legged hawk. This species is a large, broad-winged hawk found in open, arid, prairie, and shrub grasslands. It is endemic to the interior of North America. It is used as a hawk bird and is taller than the ground in its native range. This is the largest in North America, due to its size, proportions, and behavior. Among the nearly 30 species of birds in the world, only the Asian wagtail has the largest average body length and wingspan. The weights of the highland condor and the iron condor widely overlap, and it is debatable which of the two species is the heavier of the genus. Like all raptors, female iron hawks are larger than males, but there is some overlap between small females and large males in the measurement range. The length of this species ranges from 51 to 69 cm (20 to 27 inches), an average of 58 cm (23 inches), a wingspan of 122 to 152 cm (48 to 60 inches), an average of about 139 cm (55 inches), and a weight of 907 to 2268 grams (32.0 to 80.0 ounces). Weight varies from species to species, and the breeding range is relatively limited. In the southern part of the species breeding range, namely Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah, males averaged 1,050 grams (37 ounces) in 15 samples and females averaged 1,231 grams (43.4 ounces) in 4 samples. In the northern part of the breeding range, in southern Canada, Washington, Idaho, and North Dakota, males weigh an average of 1,163 grams (41.0 ounces) (from 30 samples) and 1,776 grams ( 62.6 ounces) for hawk females (out of 37 samples). The average weight of the highland vulture falls between these weight censuses and is significantly heavier than the former and heavier than the latter. In particular, the 37 female iron hawk samples are considered the largest type of stork in the northern population. 4,444 adults have long, broad wings and a broad gray, rusty, or white tail. The legs grow up to the talons, like a thick-legged hawk. There are two color forms: 

  • Clear variant bird is rusty brown on top, pale on head, neck, and underside, with rust on legs, and some rust under wings. The upper wing is gray. The name "rust color" refers to the rust color of this light bird. 

  •  Dark morpho birds have dark brown upper and lower bodies, with light-colored areas on the upper and lower wings. It has no subspecies. 


The preferred habitat of the iron hawk is the arid and semi-arid grasslands of North America. Fields are open, flat, or undulating grasslands; foothills or mid-altitude plateaus with basically no trees; and artificial protection zones or riparian corridors. Rock outcrops, shallow canyons, and canyons can be features of some habitats. These hawks avoid high altitudes, forest interiors, narrow canyons, and cliff areas. The breeding season is suitable for dry shrublands such as grassland and sagebrush. Nesting occurs in open areas or trees, including poplars, willows, and swamp oaks along waterways. Avoid cultivated land and improved pasture during the breeding season. The density of grassland iron hawks is inversely proportional to the degree of grassland cultivation. However, it is reported that the density is high in areas where almost 80% of the grassland is cultivated. The winter habitat is similar to the habitat used in summer. However, cultivated land does not necessarily have to be avoided, especially when the crops are not cultivated after harvest. The standing stubble provides a base habitat for small mammal prey needed by iron hawks and others. One of the necessary conditions for habitat is habitat such as poles, lone trees, fence posts, hills, rocky outcrops, or large rocks. In any case, iron hawks nest in trees, including riparian areas, but the presence of water does not appear to be important to them. 

Hunting and Feeding 

The iron hawk hunts mainly small and medium-sized mammals, but also feeds on birds, reptiles, and some insects. Mammals generally account for 80-90% of the prey or biomass in the diet, and birds are the next most common quality component. The diet varies geographically, depending on the distribution of prey species, but where the range of iron hawks overlaps, the black-tailed long-eared rabbit (Lepus californicus) is an important food species, as are the ground squirrels and kangaroos. Based on the relative abundance of long-eared rabbits and ground squirrels, the latter may become the main food source. Mammalian prey range in size from tiny shrews and small bats to black-tailed long-eared hares, which are much heavier than iron hawks.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Tell Something about the Smallest Hawk?

Answer: Accipiter striatus is a small hawk, the male is the smallest hawk in the United States and Canada, but the average size of this species is larger than that of some Neotropical species, such as the small hawk. The taxonomy is far from resolved, some authorities believe that the southern group represents three separate species that are the white-breasted hawk, the ratite hawk, and the red-bellied hawk. The American Ornithological Society maintains all four species of the same species. Pointed hawks nest in large conifers or dense deciduous trees. Clutches of 3 to 8 eggs have been recorded, but the typical clutch size is 4 to 5 eggs. These eggs are treasured by egg collectors because of their surprisingly colorful and diverse markings. The incubation period is considered to be about 30 days on average. After hatching, the larvae hatch from the females for 16 to 23 days, while the males defend the territory and capture prey. Young Wing, who is about a month old, will be fed and protected by his parents for another four weeks. The nesting site and breeding behavior of spiked hawks are generally reserved to avoid predation by larger raptors such as the northern goshawk and cooper's hawk. During migration, adults are sometimes preyed upon by most game birds and larger birds of prey, especially peregrine falcons.

2. What Do You Understand about Diet and Intelligence in Hawks?

Answer: Hawk, the diet includes several small animals. Some of these small animals include snakes, lizards, fish, mice, rabbits, squirrels, birds, and other types of small games that are on the ground. More specifically, the red shoulder wolf likes to eat small birds like blows and bugs like grasshopper and cricket. Intelligence in hawks, in February 2005, the Ornithologist Lehebvre in Canada announced how to measure the Intelligence quotient of birds through the measurement of feeding habits. Based on this scale, the hawks were named among the smarter birds.