Gray wolf (or Canis lupus) is also referred to as timber wolf. They are the largest wild members of the dog family (which is Canidae). They inhabit vast areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Between 7 to 12 are recognized in Eurasia, 5 and 24 subspecies of grey wolves are recognized in North America, and with 1 in Africa. Wolves were the selective breeding-produced dogs and domesticated several thousand years ago.
The grey wolf is well-equipped for the predatory lifestyle, with large canine teeth, powerful jaws, strong senses, and the capacity to chase prey at speeds of up to 60 kilometres (37 miles) per hour. A typical northern male can reach a length of 2 metres (6.6 feet), including a bushy half-meter tail. Standing 76 cm (30 inches) tall at the shoulder, it weighs up to 45 kg (100 pounds), but weight ranges from 14 to 65 kg (it means 31 to 143 pounds), based on the geographic area.
Females average up to 20 percent smaller compared to males. The largest wolves can be found in Alaska, west-central Canada, and across northern Asia. The tiniest are found toward the southern edge of their range (the Middle East, India, and Arabia). The fur on the upper body, though generally grey, can be reddish, brown, whitish, or black, while the legs and underparts are usually yellow-white. Light-coloured wolves are very common in Arctic regions.
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Usually, the gray wolves live in packs of around two dozen individuals; packs numbering from 6 to 10 are quite common. Basically, a pack is a family group with an adult breeding pair (the alpha female and alpha male) and their offspring of different ages. Wolf packs are conceivable because of wolves' propensity to create deep social relationships with one another. A dominance hierarchy can be established within the pack that helps maintain order.
The alpha male and female constantly impose themselves over their subordinates and direct the activities of the group. The female predominates in roles such as the defense of pups and care, whereas the male predominates in food provisioning, foraging, and in travels associated with those activities. Both sexes are more active in attacking and killing prey, but in summer, hunts are often conducted alone.
A territory pack can be 80 to 3,000 sq km (31 - 1,200 square miles), based on prey abundance, and it is vigorously defended against the neighbouring packs. Visual signalling (body position, face expression, tail position), vocalisations, and scent marking are all used by wolves to communicate with one another.
Howling helps the pack to stay in contact and seems to strengthen the social bonds among pack members. Along with howling, the territory with urine and faeces marking lets neighbouring packs know that they should not intrude. Often, intruders are killed by resident packs, yet in a few circumstances, they are accepted.
Breeding takes place between the months of February and April, and a litter of usually 5 or 6 pups is born in the spring after the gestation period of up to 2 months. Usually, the young are born in a den consisting of either a natural hole or a burrow, often in a hillside. A hollow log, rock crevice, overturned stump, or abandoned beaver lodge can be used as a den, and even a depression, which is beneath the lower branches of a conifer, will at times suffice. All the pack members care solicitously for the young.
After being weaned from the mother’s milk at 6 - 9 weeks, they are fed a diet of regurgitated meat. Throughout the times of spring and summer, the pups are the centre of attention and the geographic focus of the pack’s activities as well. After some weeks, the pups are generally moved from the den to an aboveground “rendezvous site,” where they play and sleep while the adults hunt. Pups grow rapidly and are moved farther and often as summer comes to an end. The pack begins to wander within its area again in the autumn season, and the pups must keep up. By October or November, almost all pups have reached adulthood.
After either two or more years in the pack, several leave to search for a mate, establish a new territory, and possibly start their own pack even. Those who stay with the pack will eventually be able to take the position of the parent and become a breeding animal (or alpha). Large packs seem to result from some young wolves’ leaving the group and from the litters’ being produced by above one female. Wolves, which leave their packs, are known to have travelled as far as 886 km (or 550 miles).
Predators and Prey
Mostly, gray wolves move and hunt at night, especially in areas populated by humans and in warm weather. The primary prey is the large herbivores such as elk, deer, bison, moose, bighorn sheep, musk oxen, and caribou that they chase, seize, and pull to the ground. When available, hares and beavers are consumed, and wolves in western Canada even fish for Pacific salmon. Most of the animals which wolves kill are either young, old, or in poor condition. After making a kill, the pack gorges (consuming at around 3 to 9 kg [i.e., 7 to 20 pounds] per animal) and then lingers, and often, reduces the carcass to hair and some bones prior to moving on to look for the other meal.
Still, biologists disagree on the effect wolves have on the prey populations’ size. Wolves can kill dogs and livestock when they have the opportunity, yet several wolves, which live near livestock, rarely, if ever, kill them. The number of stock that is killed in North America is small, but the count is increasing as wolves expand their range. And, by 2018, wolves were responsible for the losses of hundreds of heads of cattle and other livestock per one year in the United States.
To ameliorate the livestock owners and dampen concerns, the potential backlash against the wolves, many states have programs that compensate the livestock owners for the losses to their herds when there is a piece of evidence of wolf attacks on their animals. But, during the 1990s, average annual losses to the wolves in Minnesota were 33 sheep, 72 cattle, and 648 turkeys, in addition to some individuals of other types of livestock.
Stock losses are higher in the Eurasia regions. Wolves in a few regions can only survive by killing animals and consuming carrion and human waste. Nonetheless, usually, wolves avoid contact with humans. There have also been few substantiated wolf attacks on humans in North America. Such attacks are unusual but have taken place in India and Eurasia and sometimes have resulted in death.
Wolves have some natural enemies other than human beings. They may live up to 13 years in the wild, but most of them die long before 13 years. Parasites and diseases, which may affect wolves include distemper, canine parvovirus, blastomycosis, rabies, lice, Lyme disease, mange, and heartworm. Humans are the leading cause of death for wolves in several areas of the world. In areas of declining prey populations and high wolf density, the major causes of death are killing by starvation and other wolves.
The grey wolf, which is prevalent in human mythology, language, and folklore, has influenced human imagination and has been the subject of misinterpretation levels that certain animals have shared. Early human societies, which hunted for survival, admired the wolf and tried to imitate its habits, but in recent centuries, the wolf has been widely viewed as an evil creature, which is a danger to humans (specifically, in Eurasia), a competitor for big game animals, and a threat to the livestock.
Depredation of livestock was the primary justification for eradicating the wolf from virtually all of Mexico, the US, most of Europe; many subspecies are thought to have become extinct. In the United States, wolves were killed by all the methods imaginable in both the 19th and early 20th centuries, and by 1950, they remained only in Minnesota’s northeastern corner. In the late 20th century and early 21st century, legal protection, greater tolerance, and other factors allowed their range to expand in Europe and North America portions.
Probably, the wolves are more popular with the public now than at any other time in recorded history. Captive-reared Mexican wolves (subspecies) were released to their historic range in eastern Arizona beginning in 1998, and wolves from Canada were reintroduced to Idaho and Yellowstone National Park in 1995. At the beginning of the 21st century, an estimation of 65,000–78,000 wolves inhabited North America. Canada had by far the largest population (although the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island had no wolves), followed by Minnesota and Alaska.
A few of the western states and Wisconsin and Michigan as well have smaller but recovering wolf populations. Canadian wolves are protected only within the provincial parks, whereas all the wolves in the contiguous United States receive a few levels of legal protection by state and federal governments. However, the protected status of wolves in Alaska and the lower 48 states continues to be a matter of much debate, and they were removed from the United States endangered species list in 2020.
The Scandinavia and southern Europe populations are relatively small but are increasing. Probably, the Eurasian population exceeds 150,000, and it is stable or increasing in most countries, and most afford the wolf a few degrees of legal protection. Across the world, wolves still occupy up to two-thirds of their former range but remain viable and have been classified as species of least concern since 1996 by the IUCN (International Union for the Conservation of Nature & Natural Resources). Although often thought of as wilderness animals, wolves may and do thrive close to people when they are not persecuted excessively, and food is available.
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