About Gazelle

A gazelle animal is a medium-sized antelope with thin, uniformly formed limbs, a flat back, and a long neck. The majority of gazelles have tan underparts and rump patches, a black side stripe, and contrasting face patterns. They live in Asia's dry regions, from China to the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa's drylands, from the Saharan deserts to the Sub-Saharan Sahel, and northeast Africa's drylands, from the Horn of Africa to Tanzania. The majority of gazelles belong to the genus Gazella, which is part of the Bovidae family (order Artiodactyla). 


Gazelle adaptations to living in arid environments such as the Steppes, the sub desert, and even the desert. They don't need to drink since they can extract water from the plants they browse. They have small jaws and incisor rows, allowing them to eat on the most nutritious growth with extreme precision. Their urine is concentrated, and moisture is removed from their faecal pellets before expulsion. Their coats are reflective and light-coloured. They can withstand a temperature rise of up to 5 degrees Celsius (9 degrees Fahrenheit). Gazelles graze during the night and early morning when plants retain the greatest moisture, seeking cover and avoiding activity during the warmest part of the day. If all else fails, they can cool themselves by panting rapidly through their nose.

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Gazelle Animal

A gazelle animal is a kind of antelope that belongs to the genus Gazella. It is also called a gazelle antelope.


This page includes covers the seven species found in two more genera, Eudorcas and Nanger, which were formerly classified Gazella subgenera. Three extant Asian gazelle species belong to a third previous subgenus, Procapra.


Gazelle animals are noted for their speed. Gazelle speeds are up to 100 km/h (60 mph) in bursts or 50 km/h continuously (30 mph). Gazelle deer are primarily found in Africa's deserts, grasslands, and savannas, but they may also be found in the southwest and central Asia, as well as the Indian subcontinent. They prefer to dwell in herds and consume plants and leaves that are less gritty and easier to digest. Gazelles are small antelopes that stand 60–110 cm (2–3.5 ft) tall at the shoulder and have a fawn-coloured coat. Gazella, Eudorcas, and Nanger are the three gazelle genera. These genera have a muddled taxonomy, and the categorization of species and subspecies has been a point of contention. Currently, the genus Gazella is thought to have around ten species. The red gazelle, the Arabian gazelle, the Queen of Sheba's gazelle, the black gazelle animal, and the Saudi gazelle are all extinct. The most of remaining gazelle species are threatened in some way. The Tibetan and Mongolian gazelles (species of the genus Procapra), the Asian blackbuck, and the African springbok are all closely related to genuine gazelle deer.

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The African species Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas Thomson), which is 60 to 70 cm (24 to 28 in) tall at the shoulder and is brown and white with a distinct black stripe, is one of the most well-known gazelles. The males have horns that are long and often curled. When threatened by predators such as cheetahs, lions, African wild dogs, crocodiles, hyenas, and leopards, Tommies and springboks (as they are commonly known) engage in a unique behaviour known as stotting (running and jumping high before fleeing).

Characteristics of Gazelle

Gazelles are elegant and attractive animals with a variety of stripes and patterns that complement their tan buff coats and white rumps. They also have a set of ringed horns. Many gazelles are appealing as game animals because of these characteristics.

Reproduction of Gazelle

Female gazelles give birth to one or two offspring after a six-month pregnancy and hide them in the plains grasses.


These newborns will remain hidden for days or even weeks, nursing irregularly from their mothers until they are mature enough to join the mother's herd, or a bachelor herd, in the case of females.

Life on the Open Plains

Gazelles love to browse on grasses, shoots, and leaves in wide-open areas and plains.

Gazelles are vulnerable to predators like cheetahs and wild dogs because they live in open plains, yet they are quick on their feet. The Thomson's gazelle speeds up to 40 mph. Some gazelle species prefer hilly environments or even deserts over meadows. Some grassland gazelles will even travel to the African bush in quest of water during the dry season.

Habitat

Most gazelle deer live in Africa and Asia's hot, arid savannas and deserts. Gazelles reduce their hearts and livers to keep hydrated in these harsh conditions, according to a study published in the journal Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. When an animal breathes, it might lose a lot of water. Because the heart and liver of a smaller animal use less oxygen, the animal may breathe less and lose less water. The only gazelle that dwells in the highlands is the Edmi gazelle, commonly known as the Cuvier's gazelle. During the winter, it migrates to warmer climates. To avoid predators, gazelles rely on their speed. Gazelles can sprint up to 60 miles per hour in short bursts and maintain speeds of 30 to 40 miles per hour. Gazelles use bounding jump known as "pronking" or "stotting," in which they stiffly jump into the air with all four feet. These creatures are quite sociable. Gazelle herds can number up to 700 individuals, however, some are smaller and gender-segregated. In addition to their young, female Thomson's gazelles dwell in herds of 10 to 30 females. Humans live alone or with other males in small groups. A bachelor's herd is a herd of bachelors. During mating season, herd separation is more apparent.

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Diet

Herbivores, gazelles are. This means they only consume plants, such as grasses, leaves, and shoots. Some gazelles may go their whole lives without drinking water, according to "Endangered Wildlife and Plants of the World, Volume 5" (Marshall Cavendish Corp., 2001).

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Gazelle Species

  1. Arabian Gazelle

The Arabian gazelle is a threatened species. Human hunting, predation, competition, and climate change are only a few of the variables impacting the population density of Arabian gazelles. Human disturbances such as construction and illegal hunting are to blame for the population decline. Temperature change and predation (primarily by wolves) are other factors. According to the researchers, “Wolf encounter rate had a significant negative effect on G. arabica population size, while G. Dorcas population size had a significant positive effect, suggesting that wolf predation shapes the population size of both gazelle species.” It was only known until recently from a single lectotype specimen mistakenly collected in the Farasan Islands in the Red Sea in 1825. Genetic analysis of the lectotype specimen in 2013 indicated that the skull and skin come from two different lineages of the mountain gazelle (Gazella Gazella), necessitating the lectotype's limitation to the skin in order to maintain nomenclatural stability.

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  1. Dorcas Gazelle

The ariel gazelle, commonly known as the Dorcas gazelle (Gazella Dorcas), is tiny and common. With a head and body length of 90–110 cm (3–3.5 feet) and a weight of 15–20 kg (33–44 pounds), the Dorcas gazelle stands about 55–65 cm (1.8–2.1 feet) at the shoulder. The various subspecies thrive on vegetation in Africa and Arabia's grasslands, steppes, wadis, mountain deserts, and semidesert temperatures. In the wild, there are around 35,000–40,000 of them. The Arabian Peninsula's extinct Saudi gazelle (Gazella Saudia) was previously believed to be a subspecies of the Dorcas gazelle. Gazella dorcas is the scientific name for the dorcas gazelle. It belongs to the family Bovidae and the genus Gazella. Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish naturalist, originally described the species in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae in 1758.

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  1. Goitered Gazelle

Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran, parts of Iraq and Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, and northwest China and Mongolia are all home to the goitered or black-tailed gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa). The particular name, which means "full below the throat," alludes to the male's neck and throat swelling during the mating season. Sand and gravel plains, as well as limestone plateaus, are home to the goitered gazelle. In the Near East, large herds were also seen. They were kidnapped and slain with the assistance of desert kites some 6,000 years ago. Jordanian rock art indicates ritual murder. In Iran, one may locate Goitered gazelle by walking through various habitats ranging from lush mixed woods to hilly or semi-arid steppes in Golestan & Tandoureh National Park. It runs quickly and does not have the jumping, bounding stride of other gazelle species.

Goitered gazelles move seasonally throughout most of their habitat. In the winter, herds travel 10–30 kilometres per day, but in the summer, they travel just 1–3 kilometres.

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  1. Chinkara

The Indian gazelle, or chinkara (Gazella bennettii), is a gazelle species native to Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. It is 65 cm (26 in) tall and weighs around 23 kg (51 lb). It has a silky, glossy summer coat that is reddish-buff. The white belly and neck fur contrast more in the winter. From the corner of the eye to the snout, there are dark chestnut stripes on the sides of the face, which are surrounded by white stripes. Its horns are almost 39 cm long (15 in). Arid plains and hills, deserts, dry scrub, and light forests are the home to Chinkara.

In India, they may be found in over 80 protected areas. They may be found up to 1,500 meters above the sea level in Pakistan (4,900 ft). They live in Iran's Kavir National Park. The number of Indian chinkaras was estimated to be 100,000 in 2001, with 80,000 residing in the Thar Desert. Pakistan's population is dispersed and has been seriously impacted by hunting. Iran's population is also split. Chinkaras are probably quite rare in Afghanistan.

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  1. Erlanger's Gazelle

Gazella Erlanger, also known as Erlanger's gazelle or Neumann's gazelle, is a small black gazelle animal with a curly beard and short legs. It is said to have originated in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Although there is no recent information on wild numbers, it is classified as a threatened species. According to some sources, it is a mountain gazelle subspecies (Gazella Gazella).

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  1. Red Gazelle

The red gazelle (Eudorcas Rufina) was previously considered to be extinct. Before Eudorcas was promoted to a full genus, it was considered a member of the genus Gazella within the subgenus Eudorcas. Because of the rich colouring of the coat, it was assumed to have lived in the better-watered mountain parts of North Africa rather than deserts. The red gazelle has never been seen in the wild. It is known from three specimens acquired in late 19th marketplaces in Algiers and Oran, northern Algeria. They are on display at Paris and London museums. Jonathan Kingdon, for example, considers it a subspecies of the red-fronted gazelle. The red gazelle is larger than the red-fronted gazelle, with thicker hooves and bright red-brown hair. It has tiny black stripes across its flanks, in between its back and front legs, that is 2.5–4 cm broad. The top of the head, cheeks, and sides of the neck has a slight yellowish hue, while the undersides and rump are white. Pale lines going from the eyes to the nose surround the middle of its face on both sides. It bears a black tip to its rufous tail.

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  1. Dama Gazelle

The dama gazelle (Nanger dama) is a gazelle species that is also known as the "addra gazelle" or "mhorr gazelle."

It dwells in the Sahara desert and the Sahel region of Africa. Due to overhunting and habitat loss, it has vanished from most of its former range, with wild populations remaining only in Chad, Mali, and Niger. Grass, shrubland, semi-deserts, open savanna, and mountain plateaus are among its habitats. Grass, leaves (particularly Acacia leaves), shoots, and fruit make up its diet. The dama gazelle has become a national symbol of Niger. The dama gazelle has a reddish-brown head and neck with a white body. Both sexes have medium-length ringed horns that bend in an "S" shape. The horns of males are around 35 cm (14 in) long, while the horns of females are much shorter. The eyes are quite big, and the skull is tiny with a thin snout. Its neck and legs are longer than those of most gazelles. It stands 90 to 120 cm (35 to 47 in) tall at the shoulder, weighs 35 to 75 kg (77 to 165 lb), and lives up to 12 years in the wild or 18 years in captivity. Dama young are robust enough to follow the herd a few days after birth, and by a week, they can run as fast as the adults.

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  1. Mongalla Gazelle

The Mongalla gazelle (Eudorcas Albonotata) is a gazelle species found in South Sudan's floodplain and savanna.

Walter Rothschild, a British ecologist, was the first to describe it in 1903. The Mongalla gazelle's taxonomic position is up for debate. While some authors view it as a full-fledged monotypic species in the genus Eudorcas, it is frequently thought of as a subspecies of Thomson's gazelle, while others see it as a subspecies of the red-fronted gazelle. A medium-sized antelope, the Mongalla gazelle. The coat is dark, with white on the forehead, underbelly, and buttocks. Eudorcas albonotata is the scientific name for the Mongalla gazelle. Walter Rothschild, a British naturalist, was the first to describe it in 1903. On the taxonomic status of the Mongalla gazelle, there is little agreement. Many writers, including Alan W. Gentry of the Natural History Museum in London, believe this monotypic species to be a subspecies of Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas Thomson). Furthermore, writers like Colin Groves have regarded Thomson's gazelle to be conspecific with the red-fronted gazelle (E. Rufifrons).

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  1. Soemmerring's Gazelle

The Abyssinian mohr, commonly known as Soemmerring's gazelle (Nanger Soemmerringii), is a gazelle species native to the Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and South Sudan). In 1828, German physician Philipp Jakob Cretzschmar described the species and gave it a binomen. Three subspecies have been discovered. It may be no longer found in Sudan. Nanger Soemmerringii is the scientific name for Soemmerring's gazelle. Soemmerring's gazelle is a member of the genus Nanger and belongs to the family Bovidae. It was formerly classified as a member of the genus Gazella inside the subgenus Nanger before Nanger was raised to genus status.

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  1. Grant's Gazelle

Soemmerring's gazelle (N. soemmerringii) and Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas Thomsonii) are more genetically linked to Grant's gazelle, with Soemmering's gazelle being the closest cousin of the two species. Grant's gazelle populations have a lot of genetic diversity, even though they are not physically isolated. The species' distinctiveness may have developed during the late Pleistocene era's periodic expansion and constriction of arid environments, during which populations were likely separated. The Grant's gazelle is a species of gazelle that occurs in East Africa's wide grass plains and shrublands. It avoids places with tall grass because predators can't see it. They may also be found in semiarid regions and are generally well adapted to arid conditions, relying on more browse or leafy material to supplement their water intake during dry seasons.

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Conclusion

Gazelles are medium-sized antelope with thin, uniformly formed limbs, a flat back, and a long neck. They live in Asia's dry regions, from China to the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa's drylands, from the Saharan deserts to Sub-Saharan Sahel. Thomson's gazelle (Eudorcas Thomson) is one of the most well-known gazelles. The African species is 60 to 70 cm (24 to 28 in) tall at the shoulder and is brown and white with a distinct black stripe.

FAQs on Gazelle

Q.1) What is a Gazelle?

Answer: Gazelles are graceful, thin antelopes found throughout Africa and Asia.


The curving, ringed horns, tan or reddish-brown coats, and white rumps distinguish gazelles. Their coats frequently have patches or stripes. Their light frames aid agility and allow them to flee from predators.

Q.2) How Strong is a Gazelle?

Answer: Gazelles have permanent horns and are lean, agile, and powerful. The majority of animals are sprinters or marathon runners, capable of quick bursts of speed or long periods of moderate speed.

Q.3) What is the Fastest Animal in the World?

Answer: Cheetah.


The cheetah is the fastest land mammal, capable of travelling from 0 to 60 miles per hour in less than three seconds, however, it can only maintain such speeds for short distances. When it comes to hunting food, lions can reach speeds of 50 miles per hour.

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