Revision Notes for CBSE Class 6 Science Chapter 12 - Free PDF Download
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Access Class 6 Science Chapter 12 – Electricity and Circuits
Definition of Electricity:
Electricity is the flow of electrical power or the charges (electrons) through a proper medium commonly the wires we see in our homes. The source of electric currents can be through a battery, generators, invertors, dry or electric cells and might be converted from other sources of energy.
Electric circuit is a closed path that provides a continuous flow of electrons or electric current from a voltage or current source to the equipment being used. In a circuit, the current is said to flow from one terminal of a power source or say a cell to another terminal. Generally, the starting terminal is taken as positive and the ending terminal as negative. A basic circuit can be a bulb connected to a battery by means of two wires such that the bulb starts glowing given the battery isn’t dead and the bulb is not fused.
This path of current flow or a circuit can be represented using various symbols and notation for different components and is called a circuit diagram.
Open and Closed Circuits:
The path travelled by the electric current from one terminal to its other terminal when it is unbroken and continuous then it is called a closed circuit and if the same path is broken somewhere along the path that stops current to flow continuously is called an open circuit.
1. Wires: These are the electrical conductors used to connect two or more electrical components and allow the flow of current. The wires are generally made of metals that are good conductors of electricity and based on the usage, the type of metal and the dimension of wire is selected.
2. Bulb: It is a glass case composed of a filament inside it connected to the two terminals and which gets heated up upon the passage of electric current and emits light. The filament wire is generally made up of coiled tungsten wire. The electricity is supplied through the two terminals between which the filament is present.
3. Electric Cell or Dry Cell: It is a kind of device that stores chemical energy and converts it into electrical energy that can be used for different purposes. It has two terminals namely positive and negative. Inside a cell, the charges flow from the negative terminal to positive terminal while the reverse happens outside the cell.
4. Battery: This is made up of a combination of two or more cells combined in a series configuration.
5. Switch: It is a simple device used in an electrical circuit to allow or restrict the continuous flow of current. It is placed between a gap in a circuit and when turned on, it fills the gap with a conducting medium making the circuit work and when off breaks the circuit by removing the conducting medium from the gap.
The above components together can be seen in an electric torch that consists of connecting wires, battery and an LED (Light Emitting Diode) bulb.
Electrical Conductors and Insulators:
Electrical conductors are the materials that allow the flow of electricity through it. All the metals come under the category of good conductors of electricity. Among non-metals only carbon can conduct electricity which can be experimented by connecting wires across the two ends of a pencil.
On the contrary, the materials that do not allow electric currents to flow through it are called the bad conductors or the insulators. Some examples of insulators are plastic, rubber, dry wood, PVC etc.
Effects of Electricity:
The flow of electric current through a material is accompanied with some other effects which sometimes are used for other purposes or causes energy losses. Some of the effects are as follows;
Heating Effect: This effect is used in electric heaters, ovens, etc.
Lighting Effect: The primary example is an electric bulb.
FAQs on Electricity and Circuits Class 6 Notes CBSE Science Chapter 12 (Free PDF Download)
1. What is an electric circuit as per Science Chapter 12 of Class 6?
The concept of electricity and circuits is clearly and simply explained in Chapter 12 of Class 6 Science. Electricity is defined as the flow of electrons or charges that pass through a proper medium of conduction like the wires generally sourced from batteries, cells, or generators. An electric circuit is a closed path of conduction that allows the continuous flow of electrons from one end of the current source to the other terminal end of the equipment being used.
2. What do we learn from Chapter 12 “Electricity and Circuits” of Class 6?
Chapter 12 “Electricity and Circuits” of Class 6 Science defines electricity as the flow of electrons through a circuit and the sources of electricity and it illustrates the concept of conduction of electricity through a circuit. It also describes the requirements of a complete circuit and the electrical components needed in a circuit. It lists down the various conductors and insulators of electricity. The chapter further explains the effects of electricity such as the heating effect, lighting effect and magnetic effect.
3. What are the various components of the electric circuit?
An electric circuit enables a continuous flow of electrons or charges through the medium of conduction, and it requires the following components to ensure the smooth functioning of the circuit. The components include wires that are used for conduction, an electric bulb to check the applicability of the circuit, a cell, a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy or battery which is a combination of cells, and a switch, to open or close the function of the circuit.
4. What are electric conductors and insulators?
Electricity is a flow of charge from one end of the current source to the other terminal end. The objects that allow the conduction of the flow of current through the circuit are known as conductors. All the metals and carbon, which is non-metal, are known to be conductors of electricity as they easily conduct the flow of electrons through them. The objects that do not let electrons pass through them are known as insulators or bad conductors of electricity. To know more students can visit the Vedantu app or website.
5. What are the effects of electricity according to Class 6 Science Chapter 12?
Usually, the flow of electric charges through a medium is accompanied by some effects. These effects are caused due to electricity and are used for other purposes that help in carrying out several tasks. The different effects of electricity are the heating effect, which is used in iron, electric heaters, the lighting effect, which is used in the lighting of a bulb or the like, and the magnetic effect of electricity which is used in the field of electromagnetics. To know more and revise this chapter, students can download the revision notes free of cost from the Vedantu website.