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Garbage In, Garbage Out Class 6 Notes CBSE Science Chapter 16 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 19th May 2024
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Revision Notes for CBSE Class 6 Science Chapter 16 Garbage In, Garbage Out - Free PDF Download

Class 6 Science Chapter 16 - Garbage In, Garbage Out: In this chapter, we explore the fascinating world of waste management. Discover the importance of keeping our surroundings clean, learn about recycling, and understand how our actions impact the environment. Let's dive into the journey of making our world a cleaner and greener place! Free PDF download of Class 6 Science Chapter 16 - Garbage In, Garbage Out Revision Notes & Short Key-notes prepared by expert Science teachers from the latest edition of CBSE(NCERT) books. Register Online for NCERT Class 6 Science tuition on to score more marks in CBSE board examination.

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Access Class 6 Science Chapter 16 – Garbage in, Garbage out Notes in 30 Minutes


  • This is a term used to describe any material that is of no use to us and has been discarded due to its lack of usage or is worthless. 

  • Lot of waste or garbage is generated all around us every day, be it the wrappers of toffees, packets of chips, cold drink cans, waste paper, clothes, food, etc. 

  • The garbage can be classified into different types based on the source of the waste obtained, their toxicity and nature.

  1. Types of Waste Based on the Source of Garbage:

  1. Domestic Wastes: This is all the organic waste that is generated from households like kitchen waste which contains, fruit and vegetable peels, waste food, cardboard, paper, cans, tins, utensils, clothes etc. These are usually collected in urban areas daily or managed in the backyards in rural areas.

  2. Industrial Wastes: This includes all the wastes that are generated by the industries. These are generally toxic and affect our health. Some of the common industrial wastes are smoke, ash, fly ash, glass, plastic, etc. These are mostly produced by the iron and steel, paint, fertilizer, chemical industries.

  3. Agricultural Wastes: Agriculture is a main source of income for many people. Agriculture tends to produce a huge amount of waste in the form of husks, straws, dried stems, weed, animal manure, and sometimes toxic pesticide or fertilizer runoffs that get mixed with the water source.

  4. Commercial Wastes: These are the wastes that are produced by the commercial places like malls, shops, hotels, restaurants, etc.

  5. Bio-Medical Waste: This includes all the wastes that are produced in hospitals and clinics and medical centres.

  1. Type of Wastes Based on Toxicity:

  1. Toxic Wastes: The waste that is capable of causing harm and becoming a health threat to us. Example - electronic wastes like old computers, phones, batteries, paints, industrial waste, etc.

  2. Non-Toxic Wastes: The waste that does not cause any harm to health. Example - paper, leftover food, vegetable peels, etc. 

  1. Types of Wastes Based on Their Nature of Degradation:

  1. Biodegradable wastes: The waste that can be converted into simple forms of carbon dioxide, oxygen, water or other forms by the action of microorganisms are called biodegradable. Once these are broken down into simple forms or degraded, they are converted into useful materials that can be used in the soil as manure. Example - vegetable and fruit peels, animal waste, farm waste etc.

  2. Non-biodegradable wastes: This waste cannot be broken down into simpler forms by microorganisms. These wastes remain as it is in the soil for years and cause harm to organisms. Example: plastics, glass, parts of electronic items, tyres etc.


  • Plastics are found in almost everything around you, in bottles, carry bags, containers, toys, pens, pipes etc or in packaging materials like plastic wraps etc. Though these are very lightweight and easy to handle, their disposal is a big issue. 

  • These are not biodegradable. 

  • They pose a health issue to us and pollute the environment.

Negative Effects of Plastics: 

  1. The burning of plastics emits toxic gases into the air which pollutes it and may cause many diseases and cancer.

  2. The plastics in the garbage can choke the drains in the rainy season leading to floods.

  3. The animals may eat the plastics and choke to death.

  4. The food stored in plastic containers may not be suitable for eating always and may cause health issues.

  5. The plastics buried in the soil pollute them and makes them harmful for cultivation.

  6. Plastic wastes accumulate in the environment and can lead to global warming.

Ways To Reduce Plastic Waste Generation:

  1. Switch to cloth bags for shopping and stop using plastic bags.

  2. Make sure not to throw plastic wastes here and there on the road or in the water bodies.

  3. Try not to store food items in plastic bags.

  4. Do not burn the plastic wastes that are generated.

  5. Collect all the plastics after use and send them for recycling.

  6. Try and educate others about the negative impact of using plastics.

Management and Disposal of Waste:

  • All the waste that is generated in any form needs to be managed and disposed of in a proper manner for us to stay healthy and keep the environment clean. 

  • The government of India took up a step towards this by launching the ‘Swachh Bharat Mission on October 2, 2019, to make our country clean. 

  • There are various ways to manage garbage or waste. They are:

  1. Use of Landfills: 

  • This is a large low lying area, where the garbage collected from different places is dumped. 

  • The useful materials are separated from it and the rest of the garbage is spread and a layer of soil is put on them. 

  • After that landfill is full, it is converted into a park or ground and no buildings are constructed there.

  1. Composting: 

  • This is a natural method of converting biodegradable waste like the kitchen and food waste into a nutrient-rich material that can be used as manure for plants. 

  • This can be done by simply making a pit in the ground and putting the wastes in it. 

  • With time these are decomposed by microorganisms and turn into manure.

  1. Vermicomposting: 

  • This is a type of composting where redworms are used to decompose the waste. The redworms are introduced in the pit with the waste.  

  • They feed on the waste and excrete the digested material which is rich in nutrients. 

  1. Following the 3R’s principle –

  • Reduce means that we try and reduce the use of things that pollute the environment and generate waste like plastics, glass, etc.

  • Reuse refers to the reuse of the materials again, like reusing old clothes to make something or both sides of the paper to write.

  • Recycle means converting that waste material into something useful or a new product. Like recycling paper into paper mache articles, flower pots from plastics etc.

Chapter Summary - Garbage In, Garbage Out 

Class 6 Science Chapter 16, "Garbage In, Garbage Out," teaches us about effective waste management. We learn the importance of disposing of waste properly, recycling materials, and reducing our ecological footprint. The chapter emphasizes the need to keep our surroundings clean and highlights the consequences of irresponsible waste disposal. By understanding the impact of our actions on the environment, we can contribute to creating a healthier and cleaner planet. From the 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) to exploring the significance of waste segregation, this chapter equips us with valuable knowledge to make responsible choices for a sustainable future.

Important Points to Remember about Garbage In, Garbage Out Chapter

1. Understanding Waste: Chapter 16 teaches us about waste management, emphasizing the importance of handling garbage responsibly.

2. Proper Disposal: Learn the significance of disposing of waste in designated places to keep our surroundings clean.

3. Recycling Matters: Explore the concept of recycling and how it helps in reusing materials, and reducing the burden on the environment.

4. Reducing Waste: Discover ways to reduce waste by making conscious choices, such as using less packaging or opting for reusable items.

5. Impact on the Environment: Understand how improper waste disposal can harm the environment, affecting plants, animals, and our overall well-being.

6. 3Rs Principle: Familiarize yourself with the 3Rs - Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle - as essential guidelines for sustainable living.

7. Waste Segregation: Learn about the importance of separating different types of waste for efficient recycling processes.

8. Responsibility Matters: Realize that each individual plays a role in maintaining a clean environment and reducing the collective impact of garbage.

9. Community Involvement: Explore how communities can work together to implement effective waste management practices for a healthier living environment.

10. Building a Sustainable Future: Recognize that the knowledge gained from this chapter empowers us to make informed choices, contributing to a cleaner and greener planet for future generations.

Benefits of Referring to Vedantu’s Revision Notes for Class 6 Science Chapter 16 - Garbage In, Garbage Out

Discovering the secrets of waste management in Class 6 Science Chapter 16 - "Garbage In, Garbage Out" is an exciting journey. Vedantu's Revision Notes for this chapter offer numerous benefits that make learning both enjoyable and effective.

1. Quick, Clear Summaries:

Vedantu’s Revision Notes swiftly capture the essence of waste management concepts, ensuring a quick understanding of key ideas in the chapter.

2. Simplifies Complex Topics:

The notes simplify intricate waste management topics, making them easily comprehensible for every class 6 student.

3. Efficient Last-Minute Prep:

An efficient tool for last-minute exam preparations, Vedantu's notes help students review important points swiftly and effectively.

4. Enhances Retention:

By presenting information in a concise and engaging manner, these notes enhance the retention of crucial waste management details.

5. Effective Exam Preparation:

Offering key points and helpful tips, Vedantu's notes become a valuable resource for a well-rounded and effective exam preparation strategy.

6. Time-Saving Consolidation:

Save time by consolidating information in one place, facilitating a focused study approach for the "Garbage In, Garbage Out" chapter.

7. Prioritizes Important Topics:

Vedantu's notes prioritize essential topics and questions, ensuring students focus on the most critical aspects of waste management.

8. Practical Examples for Real-World Connections:

The inclusion of practical examples in the notes establishes real-world connections, aiding students in understanding the relevance of waste management in their daily lives.

9. Boosts Student Confidence:

By providing a comprehensive overview of waste management, Vedantu's Revision Notes instill confidence in students, preparing them effectively for exams.

Referring to Vedantu’s Revision Notes for Class 6 Science Chapter 16 - "Garbage In, Garbage Out" not only simplifies learning but also empowers students with the knowledge needed to excel in examinations.


For an enhanced comprehension of this subject, NCERT - Class 6 Science Chapter 16 - Garbage In, Garbage Out,  thoughtfully prepared by experienced educators at Vedantu, is your invaluable companion. These notes break down the complexities of Garbage In, Garbage Out into easily digestible sections, helping you grasp new concepts and navigate through questions effortlessly and quickly at the last minute as well. By immersing yourself in these notes, you not only prepare for your studies more efficiently but also develop a profound understanding of the subject matter.

FAQs on Garbage In, Garbage Out Class 6 Notes CBSE Science Chapter 16 (Free PDF Download)

1. How to make a precise study plan for Chapter 16 of Class 6 Science?

The strategy given below will help students in making an adequate study plan for Chapter 16 of Class 6 Science:

  • Constructing a timetable or schedule is the first step.

  • This timetable should contain all the subjects including Science.

  • Use the NCERT book for reading Chapter 16 of Class 6 Science.

  • Work out on the questions given in the NCERT book.

  • Make notes for the chapter so that you can learn the keywords easily.

  • You will get revision notes of Chapter 16 of Class 6 Science on the Vedantu website and app.

2. Write some merits and demerits of plastics.

Following are some merits of plastics:

  • Jars, containers, boxes, etc made of plastic are used by people for keeping edible materials and they do not get spoiled.

  • Plastic products can be easily carried anywhere.

  • These plastic materials are cheap, good looking and durable.

  • Disadvantages of plastics:

  • The decomposition of plastic is difficult in soil and this causes a decrease in the fertility of the soil.

  • People throw plastic bags on roads and along with garbage which are consumed by animals. Due to this, these animals suffer from diseases.

3. Discuss the types of wastes based on the source of garbage.

Based on the source of garbage, there are 5 types of garbage:

  • Domestic Wastes – In this type of waste, you will find household waste like waste food, vegetables and fruits peels, tins and cans, etc.

  • Industrial Wastes –These types of wastes are generated by the industries. These wastes are toxic and harmful to human health. For example, dust, smoke, ash, plastic, etc.

  • Agricultural Wastes – The agricultural wastes include weeds, toxic insecticides and pesticides, stems, husks, etc.

  • Commercial Wastes – This type of waste consists of wastes produced by commercial places like hotels, shops, etc.

  • Biomedical Wastes –Wastes produced by clinics, hospitals and medical centres are considered as biomedical wastes.

To know more and revise this chapter, students can download the revision notes free of cost from the Vedantu website.

4. Describe the following terms.

  • Composting

  • Vermicomposting

(a) Composting:

  • The procedure in which biodegradable wastes like kitchen or organic wastes are converted into nutrient-rich materials so that they can be used as manure is known as composting.

  • This method is done by making a pit in the ground and settling waste into it.

  • Microorganisms decompose the wastes to turn them into manure.

(b) Vermicomposting:

  • In this method, red worms are used for decomposing the waste. These red worms are put along with the waste.

  • They excrete the digested materials by feeding on the waste. These digested substances are rich in nutrients.

5. Note some differences between biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes.

(a) Biodegradable Wastes –

  • The wastes which can be turned into non-toxic materials by the decomposition of bacteria are termed biodegradable wastes. 

  • They can be changed over a long period.

  • Do not cause harm to the environment.

  • Example : cattle dung, spoilt food, fruit peels, etc.

(b) Non-biodegradable Wastes –

  • This type of waste cannot be broken into simpler matter by microorganisms.

  • Over a long period, these wastes remain unaffected.

  • These wastes cause pollution in the environment.

  • Example – plastic, DDT, glass, tins, cans, etc.