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Garbage In, Garbage Out Class 6 Notes CBSE Science Chapter 16 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 06th Dec 2023
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Revision Notes for CBSE Class 6 Science Chapter 16 - Free PDF Download

Free PDF download of Class 6 Science Chapter 16 - Garbage In, Garbage Out Revision Notes & Short Key-notes prepared by expert Science teachers from the latest edition of CBSE(NCERT) books. Register Online for NCERT Class 6 Science tuition on to score more marks in CBSE board examination.

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Access Class 6 Science Chapter 16 – Garbage in, Garbage out Notes in 30 Minutes


  • This is a term used to describe any material that is of no use to us and has been discarded due to its lack of usage or is worthless. 

  • Lot of waste or garbage is generated all around us every day, be it the wrappers of toffees, packets of chips, cold drink cans, waste paper, clothes, food, etc. 

  • The garbage can be classified into different types based on the source of the waste obtained, their toxicity and nature.

  1. Types of Waste Based on the Source of Garbage:

  1. Domestic Wastes: This is all the organic waste that is generated from households like kitchen waste which contains, fruit and vegetable peels, waste food, cardboard, paper, cans, tins, utensils, clothes etc. These are usually collected in urban areas daily or managed in the backyards in rural areas.

  2. Industrial Wastes: This includes all the wastes that are generated by the industries. These are generally toxic and affect our health. Some of the common industrial wastes are smoke, ash, fly ash, glass, plastic, etc. These are mostly produced by the iron and steel, paint, fertilizer, chemical industries.

  3. Agricultural Wastes: Agriculture is a main source of income for many people. Agriculture tends to produce a huge amount of waste in the form of husks, straws, dried stems, weed, animal manure, and sometimes toxic pesticide or fertilizer runoffs that get mixed with the water source.

  4. Commercial Wastes: These are the wastes that are produced by the commercial places like malls, shops, hotels, restaurants, etc.

  5. Bio-Medical Waste: This includes all the wastes that are produced in hospitals and clinics and medical centres.

  1. Type of Wastes Based on Toxicity:

  1. Toxic Wastes: The waste that is capable of causing harm and becoming a health threat to us. Example - electronic wastes like old computers, phones, batteries, paints, industrial waste, etc.

  2. Non-Toxic Wastes: The waste that does not cause any harm to health. Example - paper, leftover food, vegetable peels, etc. 

  1. Types of Wastes Based on Their Nature of Degradation:

  1. Biodegradable wastes: The waste that can be converted into simple forms of carbon dioxide, oxygen, water or other forms by the action of microorganisms are called biodegradable. Once these are broken down into simple forms or degraded, they are converted into useful materials that can be used in the soil as manure. Example - vegetable and fruit peels, animal waste, farm waste etc.

  2. Non-biodegradable wastes: This waste cannot be broken down into simpler forms by microorganisms. These wastes remain as it is in the soil for years and cause harm to organisms. Example: plastics, glass, parts of electronic items, tyres etc.


  • Plastics are found in almost everything around you, in bottles, carry bags, containers, toys, pens, pipes etc or in packaging materials like plastic wraps etc. Though these are very lightweight and easy to handle, their disposal is a big issue. 

  • These are not biodegradable. 

  • They pose a health issue to us and pollute the environment.

Negative Effects of Plastics: 

  1. The burning of plastics emits toxic gases into the air which pollutes it and may cause many diseases and cancer.

  2. The plastics in the garbage can choke the drains in the rainy season leading to floods.

  3. The animals may eat the plastics and choke to death.

  4. The food stored in plastic containers may not be suitable for eating always and may cause health issues.

  5. The plastics buried in the soil pollute them and makes them harmful for cultivation.

  6. Plastic wastes accumulate in the environment and can lead to global warming.

Ways To Reduce Plastic Waste Generation:

  1. Switch to cloth bags for shopping and stop using plastic bags.

  2. Make sure not to throw plastic wastes here and there on the road or in the water bodies.

  3. Try not to store food items in plastic bags.

  4. Do not burn the plastic wastes that are generated.

  5. Collect all the plastics after use and send them for recycling.

  6. Try and educate others about the negative impact of using plastics.

Management and Disposal of Waste:

  • All the waste that is generated in any form needs to be managed and disposed of in a proper manner for us to stay healthy and keep the environment clean. 

  • The government of India took up a step towards this by launching the ‘Swachh Bharat Mission on October 2, 2019, to make our country clean. 

  • There are various ways to manage garbage or waste. They are:

  1. Use of Landfills: 

  • This is a large low lying area, where the garbage collected from different places is dumped. 

  • The useful materials are separated from it and the rest of the garbage is spread and a layer of soil is put on them. 

  • After that landfill is full, it is converted into a park or ground and no buildings are constructed there.

  1. Composting: 

  • This is a natural method of converting biodegradable waste like the kitchen and food waste into a nutrient-rich material that can be used as manure for plants. 

  • This can be done by simply making a pit in the ground and putting the wastes in it. 

  • With time these are decomposed by microorganisms and turn into manure.

  1. Vermicomposting: 

  • This is a type of composting where redworms are used to decompose the waste. The redworms are introduced in the pit with the waste.  

  • They feed on the waste and excrete the digested material which is rich in nutrients. 

  1. Following the 3R’s principle –

  • Reduce means that we try and reduce the use of things that pollute the environment and generate waste like plastics, glass, etc.

  • Reuse refers to the reuse of the materials again, like reusing old clothes to make something or both sides of the paper to write.

  • Recycle means converting that waste material into something useful or a new product. Like recycling paper into paper mache articles, flower pots from plastics etc.

FAQs on Garbage In, Garbage Out Class 6 Notes CBSE Science Chapter 16 (Free PDF Download)

1. How to make a precise study plan for Chapter 16 of Class 6 Science?

The strategy given below will help students in making an adequate study plan for Chapter 16 of Class 6 Science:

  • Constructing a timetable or schedule is the first step.

  • This timetable should contain all the subjects including Science.

  • Use the NCERT book for reading Chapter 16 of Class 6 Science.

  • Work out on the questions given in the NCERT book.

  • Make notes for the chapter so that you can learn the keywords easily.

  • You will get revision notes of Chapter 16 of Class 6 Science on the Vedantu website and app.

2. Write some merits and demerits of plastics.

Following are some merits of plastics:

  • Jars, containers, boxes, etc made of plastic are used by people for keeping edible materials and they do not get spoiled.

  • Plastic products can be easily carried anywhere.

  • These plastic materials are cheap, good looking and durable.

  • Disadvantages of plastics:

  • The decomposition of plastic is difficult in soil and this causes a decrease in the fertility of the soil.

  • People throw plastic bags on roads and along with garbage which are consumed by animals. Due to this, these animals suffer from diseases.

3. Discuss the types of wastes based on the source of garbage.

Based on the source of garbage, there are 5 types of garbage:

  • Domestic Wastes – In this type of waste, you will find household waste like waste food, vegetables and fruits peels, tins and cans, etc.

  • Industrial Wastes –These types of wastes are generated by the industries. These wastes are toxic and harmful to human health. For example, dust, smoke, ash, plastic, etc.

  • Agricultural Wastes – The agricultural wastes include weeds, toxic insecticides and pesticides, stems, husks, etc.

  • Commercial Wastes – This type of waste consists of wastes produced by commercial places like hotels, shops, etc.

  • Biomedical Wastes –Wastes produced by clinics, hospitals and medical centres are considered as biomedical wastes.

To know more and revise this chapter, students can download the revision notes free of cost from the Vedantu website.

4. Describe the following terms.

  • Composting

  • Vermicomposting

(a) Composting:

  • The procedure in which biodegradable wastes like kitchen or organic wastes are converted into nutrient-rich materials so that they can be used as manure is known as composting.

  • This method is done by making a pit in the ground and settling waste into it.

  • Microorganisms decompose the wastes to turn them into manure.

(b) Vermicomposting:

  • In this method, red worms are used for decomposing the waste. These red worms are put along with the waste.

  • They excrete the digested materials by feeding on the waste. These digested substances are rich in nutrients.

5. Note some differences between biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes.

(a) Biodegradable Wastes –

  • The wastes which can be turned into non-toxic materials by the decomposition of bacteria are termed biodegradable wastes. 

  • They can be changed over a long period.

  • Do not cause harm to the environment.

  • Example : cattle dung, spoilt food, fruit peels, etc.

(b) Non-biodegradable Wastes –

  • This type of waste cannot be broken into simpler matter by microorganisms.

  • Over a long period, these wastes remain unaffected.

  • These wastes cause pollution in the environment.

  • Example – plastic, DDT, glass, tins, cans, etc.