Generating Awareness on Disaster Management
Geological effects such as earthquakes, landslides, floods or natural calamities such as cyclones, droughts, volcanoes are widespread in today’s earth. All of these natural disasters result in disastrous impacts that affect not only the planet but also the human civilization residing in it. Over half the population of a country can be changed if any of the above mentioned natural calamities strike the region. Generating awareness of disaster management is an essential step that a country and its people can take. On being aware of the damage that a human-made disaster can cause, one can avert the chances of massive destruction. Being prepared and knowledgeable of all the natural calamities can reduce the chances of loss of life too.
⅕ th of the global deaths occurred due to floods happen in India. More than a thousand members die every year because of this natural calamity. Out of the total economic loss caused by natural disasters, floods account for around 79% of economic loss in India. Uttarakhand floods in 2013 is one of the major and hard-hitting floods followed by the floods in Patna in 2019, Kerala in 2018 etc,
Major causes of floods in India
Insufficient storage capacity in dams and river banks to carry the water from the upstream
Human encroachment on flood plains by building up houses, buildings for commercial purposes
In some coastal areas of India, cyclones and heavy rainfall caused heavy flooding.
Development of cities without proper planning like drainage systems, space to underground water recharge, concretization etc, would increase the runoff and causes flooding
When sand is removed from the river bed or lost due to natural erosion, this would change the river course and cause flooding.
IMD (Indian Meteorological Department) forecasts the flood and gives prior information about the areas under threat and prepares them for evacuation. CWC (Central Water Commission) collects and produces data related to hydrology in the whole country like discouragement of water and warns about potential flooding chances
What Are The Preventive Measures Of Disaster?
Although natural disasters and calamities cannot be prevented, there are many ways by which one can be made aware of them. If a community starts spreading awareness of the disaster, then people will get an idea about the destruction.
Talk with your local emergency response team. These people are aware of the effects of the disaster and can help the citizens of the local community to organise help and relief accordingly.
Keep an emergency kit ready at all costs. Make sure the emergency kits supplied are large enough for every family member. Some families have more members than others. In such a case, it is best to keep different sets of emergency kits handy.
Arrange workshops on preventive measures of disaster all year round. This will not only improve the planning process but also keep everyone ready for the main event.
Make the citizens aware of the evacuation routes and give them all the necessary emergency numbers. Get the local media and other news agencies to work for your cause. I kept updating the citizens every month about the different preventive measures of disaster.
School radio stations can organize monthly workshops to make the children aware of the situation and spread sufficient awareness.
Handing out leaflets and brochures that talk about disaster management is a must.
Safety Measures During Floods
Safety measures during floods that should be followed by one, and all are:
Stay away from water clogged streets: Death due to drowning is a primary health hazard during floods. Without being sure of the depth of water, try not to walk through water clogged streets. During flash floods, make sure you use a stick before stepping into the water.
Stay away from electrical wires: Electrocution is a significant killer during floods. As current can flow through water, several loose wires lying here and about during tides can cause death. It is best to shut down the main lines during heavy rainfall. Following these safety measures during floods will reduce harm to humans.
Safety Measures During Cyclones
Safety measures during cyclones that should be followed are:
Keep your emergency kits ready and handy.
Make sure you have kept your phones and other necessary electronic devices charged.
Keep candles ready in case the electrical power is cut off.
Repair your roof shed or tiles. Try not to keep any loose debris lying about.
Tie loose poles and rods with ropes before the storm hits.
Following these safety measures during cyclones is a must for all.
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What Are The Different Natural Calamities Safety Measures?
Every year several people are affected by different natural calamities. These disasters may be human-made or natural. Hazards may include explosions, floods, hurricanes, tornadoes or forest fires. Such natural disasters can cause widespread destruction that will harm not only humans but also animals and birds. There are several safety measures that one can adopt too in case such a disaster occurs. Safety measures during floods and cyclones have already been mentioned above. Following those and other natural calamities safety measures will keep you out of danger and health hazards.
Fun Facts About Safety Measures During Natural Disasters
You can get your entire family together during a natural calamity such as floods or cyclones and spend quality time with them.
Although cyclones bring significant destruction often, if you’re in a safe zone, then you can arrange for health camps in your building.
Earthquakes usually trigger other natural calamities such as tornadoes and hurricanes.
Earthquakes and floods usually accompany landslides.
Forest fires are capable of damaging vast areas of greenery.
FAQs on Safety Measures and Technology
1. What Are The Five Deadliest Natural Disasters in 2018?
According to research, the top 10 natural disasters that occurred in the year 2018 are:
Earthquake in Papua New Guinea
Floods in North Korea
Pakistan Heat Wave
All of the above natural calamities resulted in more than 200 deaths. It sent shock waves across the world. As the earth is being exposed to excessive global warming, the rate at which natural calamities are occurring in the countries is also increasing. The area which experienced flood received about 15 inches of rainfall in less than two hours. Flash floods are responsible for killing several people in the coastal regions.
2. What Are The Causes Of Natural Calamities?
Natural calamities have been existing for a very long time now. Even in the earliest centuries of civilisation, records of natural disasters have been found. The fundamental cause of natural accidents nowadays is climate change. Climate change is a real issue, and the profound changes in it are responsible for these natural calamities. Hurricanes and Tornadoes in western countries have caused massive damage over the years. Not only loss of human life but extensive property damage has also been recorded. Although one cannot bring an end to these natural disasters, taking preventive measures to keep ourselves protected and safe during such situations is a must for one and all.
3. Suggest some measures to tackle flooding?
Flooding is caused when the water levels in a river stream exceed its capacity to carry. They cause loss to human, animal life and also destroy infrastructure causing huge economic loss. Following are some of the measures to tackle flooding:
Mangroves are attached with a lot of importance to counter the coastal flooding often caused by cyclones and heavy rainfall. This will reduce the wind speed and also reduce the chance of cyclones hitting the land area.
Institutions like IMD (Indian Meteorological Department),
CWC(Central Water Commission) provides a lot of information regarding weather conditions and water levels in the country. All the information has to be carefully utilised to reduce the effects of flooding
During normal days when the river flow is, as usual, we can try building embankments on river banks and dykes to control flooding
There are some non-structural measures like flood forecasting, alerting people in potential threat zones, and community participation in risk management are voluntary but essential steps.
Officials have to strictly implement building laws and also demarcate areas near the river banks based on their potential exposure to floods.
4. What is the role played by NDMA in disaster management?
NDMA (National Disaster Management Authority) is the highest body that looks after disaster management in our country. It was formed after enacting the Disaster Management Act in 2005. It is headed by the Prime Minister and has nine other members in it to make decisions related to its functions. It is mainly formed to coordinate the responses for man-made and natural disasters like floods, tsunami, earthquakes etc., it approves a plan for the whole country to take care of the disasters also known as the “National Disaster Management Plan”. It makes policies related to the same, brings together all the plans made by different ministries and approves them. It also maintains a fund to meet the expenses incurred while controlling the disaster and rescuing the people. The same structure is designed for the states also and the organisational setup in the states is called SDMA (State Disaster Management Authority). It carries the same operations at the state level.
5. What are urban floods?
Urban floods occur in urban areas and metropolitan cities. Recent floods in Chennai and annual floods in Mumbai are some of the examples of urban floods in India. Following are the reasons for urban flooding:
Improper planning leads to the rise of buildings and constructions on a large scale. This will disturb the drainage pattern and cause urban flooding when the water retention capacity is crossed.
Many cities allow construction after destroying the existing water bodies. This will not only deplete the water resources but also reduce the recharging capacity.
When the waste from the cities is generated on a large scale and can not be disposed of properly, many people let the waste out into water bodies. This will block the drains and canals and causes flooding