Rolling Friction and Rolling Resistance

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What is Rolling Friction?

For a solid body in motion, there are two foremost kinds of friction that execute at a given time.

The force which opposes the rolling action of a moving body on a plane is depicted as rolling friction or rolling resistance. 

The examples of rolling friction are given by rolling of a football or motion of a truck wheel on the ground.

The supplementary kind of friction is also known as sliding friction. In this category of friction, there is a limit on the movement of the body as one of its sides is in contact with the surface.

An example of sliding friction can be illustrated as pushing a box across the table.

Rolling friction is significantly powerless than sliding friction. The picture given below is showing sliding and rolling friction respectively.

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Rolling Friction Examples

When an object is moved upon a surface, certain effects occur:

  • The body is distorted at the contact point with the plane.

  • The surface is mutilated at the contact point with the body.

  • Movement is created underneath the superficial consequently.

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The main cause of this friction is that the energy of distortion is greater than the energy of retrieval. Also, there is a bonding force between the two plains which requires being overwhelmed continuously. The quantity of friction is built on numerous factors such as:

  • The eminence of the surface

  • The superiority of the sliding object

  • Weight (mass)

  • The rolling object’s diameter 

  • The object’s Surface area 

Below is some unremarkable example for rolling friction

  • A car will ultimately come to discontinue its motion if only permitted to move as the friction between the wheels and the road surface originates from friction that helps the vehicle to stop.

  • Thicker bike wheels will decrease the bike’s potential speed because there is a better wheel surface to generate friction alongside the surface to decelerate the bike.

  • Heavy-duty trucks get superior gas range when tread initiates to grab on the tires. This is because there is a chance of a smaller amount of rolling friction,that lets the truck transfer more rapidly with less resistance.

  • On a slight failure, a skateboard set will halt by itself ultimately on account of the resistance produced by the friction between the exterior and the wheels.

  • A football hit out across a grassy ground will crawl down faster than the one-hit out across an even, firm surface as the rolling friction is far superior on the field.

  • While a train travels around a bend there is superior rolling friction.

  • Roller skates have superior rolling friction as compared to the Rollerblades as there is additional touching base between surface and wheel on roller skates.

  • Rolling friction in a duckpin bowling ball is probable to have less than a full-size bowling ball as less rolling friction is created based upon its weight and size.

  • More rolling friction will be obligated to a dump truck rather than a small car since the truck is a weightier load pressuring on the wheel and consequently initiating superior rolling friction.

As we can understand, numerous things practice rolling friction every day. There are illustrations all over the world.

Rolling Friction Formula

The rolling friction comprises of three laws, that are:

  • The force of rolling friction declines with the rise in softness.

  • Rolling friction is stated as the multiplication of load and the fractional power constant.

F = k * Ln

  • Rolling friction force is inversely proportional to the radius of curvature as well as directly proportional to load.

      F = μ × \[\frac{w}{r}\]  

Calculating the coefficient of the friction is significantly more composite as compared to sliding friction.

The coefficient of rolling friction is shown as the fraction of the force of rolling friction to the total weight of the object.

In experiential expressions, the coefficient of rolling resistance can be stated as:

Fr = μr * W


Fr = rolling resistance resistivity 

W = rolling body’s weight of the 

μr = coefficient of rolling resistance

Rolling friction and rolling resistance

The force that repels the movement of a body progressing on a certain surface is known as the rolling friction or the rolling resistance.

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The rolling resistance can be shown as

Fr = c * W 


Fr = rolling friction or rolling resistance (N)

c = rolling resistance coefficient. It is dimensionless (CRF - coefficient of rolling friction)

Again we know that

W = m * ag 


W = usual force, or weight of the body (N)

m = mass of body (kg)

ag = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2)

Further, the rolling resistance can be stated as;

Fr = cl W/r  


cl = rolling resistance coefficient and its dimension in length (mm) alternatively known as the coefficient of rolling friction.

W = natural force, or the weight of the body in N

r = the wheel’s radius in mm

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. What will be the Rolling Resistance of a Vehicle if its Weight is 1600 kg and Rolling Friction Coefficient 0.04?

Ans: We know that,

Fr = 0.04 (1600 kg) (9.81 m/s2)

= 627.84 N

= 0.63 k-N

Q2. What are the Influences that Disturb Rolling Resistance of a Vehicle?

Ans: Factors or influences that disturb the rolling friction are:

i. Tire diameter

ii. Tire pressure

iii. Tire construction

iv. Tire width

v. Tire tread, and 

many different factors. 

All of them have an outcome on rolling resistance. 

On a wholly even surface, the following method applies i.e., the greater in the increase of pressure, the lesser is the tire deformation and consequently rolling resistance.

Q3. Mention Some Parameters that the Coefficient of Rolling Friction is Dependent on?

Ans: The coefficient of rolling friction is reliant on deepness to which the body can drop the radius of the rolling object and the surface hardiness.

Coefficient of rolling friction is denoted as;

Fr = μr * N

Q4. Does the Rolling Resistance Upsurge with Speed?

Ans: The force of rolling resistance does not alter at greater speeds. Though there is a lot of extra hotness being manufactured at greater speeds, the cyclist utilizes more energy per second (power) to labor alongside rolling resistance.