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Last updated date: 30th May 2024
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Nanoparticles Definition

Do you know ‘what is the definition of nanoparticles’? The nanoparticles are small particles which have a range between 1 to 100 nanometers in size.

We can’t see anything with our eyes in the range of nanoparticles. They can have different types of significant physical and chemical properties. All of them are associated with their larger material counterparts. Scientists use some methods to define nanoparticles.

European Commission states have generated a definition of nanoparticles. They say that the particle size of nanoparticles is in the range of 100nm or below. Most of the nanoparticles are composed of a few hundred atoms.

What Size Range Do Nanoparticles Have?

1 to 100 nm is the average nanotechnology particle size. 

A tabular arrangement that has the information regarding the diameter size (range) with the particle type.

Particle Type

Diameter Size Range

Atoms and small molecules

0.1 nm


1 to 100 nm (size of nanoparticles in nm)

Fine particles (also called particulate matter - PM2.5)

100 to 2,500 nm

Coarse particles (PM10, or dust)

2500 to 10,000 nm

Thickness of paper

100,000 nm

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The change in the material properties exists because of their size. Here, the size of the nanoparticles is almost close to the size of the atomic scale. The fact behind all this is the increment of surface area to volume ratio. 

The increasing of that ratio promotes the surface atoms of the material to dominate over its material performance. 

We know that nanoparticles are very small. They already possess a very large surface area to volume ratio.  If we compare the result of the ratio with the bulk material, such as powders, plate, and sheet, it will fall much shorter than you expect.

Nanoparticles have some amazing features, such as they can possess unexpected optical, physical, and chemical properties. These particles are very tiny, and so they can confine with electrons and produce quantum effects.

Nanoparticles Examples and Applications

Nanomaterials are naturally occurring substances. These materials can be fashioned as the by-products of combustion reactions.  

Also, scientists are producing them decisively through engineering.  They are ready to perform different types of specialized functions. Some of the best nanoparticles examples and applications are given hereunder:

  1. Nanoparticles are used in different types of industries, starting from healthcare and cosmetics to environmental preservation and air purification. Transportation of chemotherapy drugs is the best example that comes under nanoparticles usage.

  2. Nanoparticles are used in aerospace. The use of carbon nanotubes in the morphing of aircraft wings yield several benefits. These types of nanotubes are functional in a composite form. They are useful to turn in the reaction of an electric voltage.

  3. Nanoparticles are also used among different types of environmental preservation processes. These particles make good sense over here.  In these circumstances, they are called nanowires. 

An application that comes under the category nanowires is zinc oxide nanowires. These nanowires are very flexible solar cells and perfect for the treatment of polluted water.

  1. They are widely used in cosmetic industries. They call them mineral nanoparticles. Some of the examples of mineral nanoparticles are titanium oxide (they are used for making sunscreen as they have poor stability). This nanoparticle gives conservative chemical UV protection for the long-term. 

Another name called titanium oxide also falls under the category of nanoparticles. They can deliver better UV protection following the benefit of removing the unnecessary unattractive whitening. All of the processes are possible due to nanoparticles.  

  1. The use of nanoparticles among sports industries is quite important.  They are helpful in the production of baseball bats, and also manufacturers use carbon nanotubes for making these bats. These nanoparticles are lighter and helpful for improving the players’ performance. 

  2. The use of nanomaterials among other industries for the manufacturing of the towels and mats used by sportspeople. All of these products use antimicrobial nanotechnology. They are useful to prevent diseases instigated by bacteria.

  3. Photovoltaics (PV) are the types of nanoparticles that can control the size, shape, and material of the nanoparticle. These nanoparticles allow engineers to design different types of solar thermal products.  All solar products are custom-made with solar absorption rates. 

The use of these nanoparticles has increased the absorption rate of solar radiation to a certain higher rate.

  1. A method called the Sol-Gel process is helpful for the production of solid material from nanoparticles. 

A nanoparticle called Whilst has some relative usage in new industrial technology.  This nanoparticle is extensively useful in numerous factories for the manufacturing of abrasive powder, coatings production, and optical fibres.

  1. Developers use Nano-titanium dioxide for promoting the self-cleaning process of the surfaces of plastic garden chairs. 

In this process, the coating is helpful to produce a sealed film of water upon it. After that, all types of dirt dissolve in that particular film.  During the next shower, the film will erase every dirt and other stuff and will clean the chairs.

FAQs on Nanoparticles

Q1. Explain the Working of Nanoparticles.

Ans: Nanoparticles have plenty of usage among different industries. They are so tiny and helpful in medical science, manufacturing of cosmetics, development of solar panels and tubes, manufacturing of military suits, cleaning the dirt out of the chair, helpful in the production of optical fibres, and so on.

Q2. Can You Explain Some of the Varieties of Nanoparticles?

Ans: The classification of nanoparticles is dependent on different types of sizes, morphology, physical changes, and chemical properties. We classify the nanoparticles as given below:

  • Carbon-based nanoparticles

  • Ceramic nanoparticles

  • Metal nanoparticles

  • Semiconductor nanoparticles

  • Polymeric nanoparticles

  • Lipid-based nanoparticles

Q3. Is the Use of Nanoparticles Safe or Not?

Ans: According to the studies of human resources, nanoparticles can be involved within our bloodstream when we use them in most cases. Nanoparticles are toxic if you try to inhale those. However, materials that are manufactured out of nanoparticles are somehow safe.

Q4. What is the Price of Gold Nanoparticles in US Dollars?

Ans: A single milligram of gold nanoparticles can cost around $80. Here, the size of the nanoparticles matter. As we know, the price of gold is around $80,000. However, the price of raw gold nanoparticles is $50.

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