Heavy hydrogen, often known as deuterium, is one of the stable isotopes of hydrogen. Deuterium gets its name from the Greek word deuterons, which means "second."
The stable isotopic variation of hydrogen gas has only one proton and one neutron. Protium, which does not have a neutron, makes up 99.9% of naturally occurring marine hydrogen, while Deuterium makes up only 0.02 percent.
Harold C. Urey, an American scientist, and his coworkers Ferdinand G. Brickwedde and George M. Murphy discovered deuterium in 1931. Urey anticipated that the vapor pressures of molecular hydrogen (H2) and a corresponding molecule with one hydrogen atom substituted by deuterium (HD) would differ, allowing them to be separated by liquid hydrogen distillation.
What is Deuterium?
Deuterium, also known as heavy hydrogen, is one of the isotopes of hydrogens that is stable. The name deuterium is derived from the Greek word deuterons, which means 'second'. The nucleus of the hydrogen-deuterium atom is known as a deuteron, containing one proton and one neutron. Protium does not have a neutron. Deuterium has a natural abundance of about one atom in between 6420 hydrogens in the oceans. Thus, deuterium takes account for approximately 0.02% (0.03% by mass) of all the hydrogens that occur naturally in the oceans, and protium takes account for the rest of 99.98%.
Deuterium oxide is an isotopic form of water which is always stable and non-radioactive. This element contains two atoms of deuterium (D) and one atom of oxygen, with DNA-labelling activity. It is also known as heavy water. It is called heavy water due to the presence of deuterium in it, which is a heavier hydrogen isotope as compared to the hydrogen isotope (protium), which is present in normal water.
The heavier hydrogen isotope brings out the nuclear properties of water. The increase in the mass of the water due to deuterium makes the water slightly different from normal water in terms of physical and chemical properties.
Facts, Properties and Uses
Deuterium has several properties as listed below:
Deuterium forms chemical bonds that are stronger than regular hydrogen.The triple point, boiling point, vapor pressure, heat of fusion, and heat of evaporation of deuterium are all much higher than those of common hydrogen.
The gas deuterium is colorless. When ionized, however, it gives off a distinctive pink hue.
Because of the stronger connections, heavy water has a density of 10.6 times that of conventional water (1.624 g/cm3). In standard water, heavy water ice sinks, but it floats in heavy water.
Heavy water has a higher viscosity than regular water. (12.6 μPa·s at 300 K).
Deuterated water is used in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.
It is used as a moderator in nuclear reactors.
The metabolic rate of the human body can be determined by using it.
For tracking the process of Photosynthesis in plants, it is used as the primary tracer element.
By using Deuterium in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, magnetic field stabilization is being maintained.
It is used in the determination of the isotopologue of various organic compounds.
In heavy water form, it is used in Infrared Spectroscopy.
There is an important aspect of Nuclear fusion reaction known as Tritium. It is controlled by using Deuterium.
Atomic weight = 2.014
Molecular weight = 4.0282 g/mol
Symbolic representation = 2H
Boiling point = (-)249o C
Melting point = (-)254o C
Delton or Deuteron is the name for a single Deuterium nucleus. Deuterium has no radioactive effects due to its minute presence among the naturally occurring Hydrogen form.
It is naturally flammable and emits a pale blue flame.
It is non-toxic, however, it can deplete oxygen levels in the atmosphere, resulting in asphyxiation.
It is also referred to as Hydrogen 2 and Deuterons.
It has no color and odor.
By nature it is non-corrosive.
When the temperature is low, it is slightly soluble in water (cold water)