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Batteries in Series Parallel

Last updated date: 28th May 2024
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Batteries in Series Parallel

Batteries are one of the most commonly used devices which achieve the desired operating voltage by connecting several cells in series and each cell adds its potential voltage to derive at the total voltage terminal. The connections which are parallel, they attain higher capacity by adding up the total ampere-hour that is Ah.

Some of the packs may also consist of a combination that is of parallel and series connections. Such a configuration is called the 4s2p that means four cells which are in series and two which are in parallel. The foil which is Insulating foil between the cells that prevents the conductive metallic skin from causing a short of electric current.

Most of the batteries that are chemistries lend themselves to parallel and series connections. It is very important to use the battery which is the same type with equal capacity and voltage that is Ah and it is never to mix different makes and sizes. A cell which is weaker would cause an imbalance. If we look at the analogy we can see that a chain in which the links represent the cells of a battery are connected in series

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A cell which is a weak cell may not fail immediately but will get exhausted very quickly than the strong ones when on a load. The low cells in charge fills up before the strong ones, that is because there is very less to fill and it remains in charge over longer than the others. On the discharge the cell which is weak cell empties first and gets hammered by the other cell which is stronger. Cells in multi-packs must be matched especially when it is used under heavy loads.

Single Cell

The configuration of the cells which are single-cell is the simplest battery pack, the cell probably does not need protection and the matching circuit on a small Li-ion cell that can be kept simple. 

Typical example are mobile phones and tablets with one 3.60V  cell. Other uses of a single cell are wall clocks, which typically use a 1.5Voltage cell, memory backup and wristwatches backup, most of which are very low power applications as well.

The cell voltage which is of nominal cell voltage for a nickel-based battery is 1.2Voltage, alkaline is 1.5V. The  silver gets oxidised silver  and uses 1.6V and lead acid  uses 2.0Voltage. Lithium Primary  batteries range between 3.0V and 3.9V. 

The manganese and Lithium-based other systems often use cell voltages of 3.7V and at times even higher. This has very less to do with the chemistry of batteries than promoting a higher watt-hour  denoted by Wh, which is made up of possible higher voltage. The argument here goes that an internal cell of low resistance keeps the voltage high under load. For operational purposes these cells use 3.6 Voltage.


Connection in Series 

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The equipment which is portable which is needing higher voltages use battery packs with two or even more cells connected in series. Figure  above shows a battery pack with four 3.6V cells which are in series, and are also known as 4S, specially to produce 14.4V nominal. In comparison if we see we notice that there is  a lead of six-cell acid which is strong with 2V/cell will generate 12V. And there are also four alkaline with 1.5Voltage/cell and will give 6Voltage.

If you need a voltage which is of odd value of that is say 9.50 volts they connect five acid lead. Eight  NiCd and NiMH or there are three Li-ion in series. The battery end voltage does not need to be exact as long as it is higher than the specific device. A 12Voltage supply might work in lieu of 9.50Voltage. Most operated battery devices can tolerate over-voltage. The end of the discharge voltage battery must be respected.

A very high voltage battery is kept the size of the conductor. The power on which Cordless power tools run on 18V and 12V batteries, their end which is high end models use 36 V and 24V. Most of the e-bikes or electric bikes which come with 36V Li-ion are 48V. The industry of car wanted to increase the starter battery from 12V or 14V to 36V, we better known as 42V, by placing lead acid cell 18 in series. The Batteries which are in remote and drones controls for hobbyists which is requiring high load current that often exhibit an unexpected drop of voltage if one cell in a string is weak. Drawing the current which is maximum stresses frail cells, leading to a possible crash. After reading the voltage a charge does not identify this anomaly, that is it is not  examining the balance of or checking the capacity with a battery.

Parallel Connection 

If a current is higher and is needed larger cells and these cells are not available or do not fit the design constraint. One or even more cells can be connected in the orientation which is parallel. Most of the chemical batteries allow parallel configurations with little side effect. Figure which is given below clearly illustrates four cells which are connected in parallel that are in a P4 arrangement. The voltage which is the nominal voltage of the illustrated pack remains at 3.60Voltage intact. But if we see the capacity in Ah and runtime we can observe that they are increased fourfold.

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A cell which develops a very high resistance or we can say that its opens is less critical in a circuit which is parallel than in a series configuration. But a cell which is failing will reduce the total load capability as well. It’s mostly like an engine which is only firing on three cylinders instead of on all the four. A lack of electricity on the other hand is more serious as compared to the faulty cell drains energy from the other cells, which is causing a fire hazard.

FAQs on Batteries in Series Parallel

Q1. What happens when we connect multiple Batteries in Parallel?

Ans: The batteries which are Connected in parallel increases total current capacity by decreasing resistance, and it also at the same time increases overall amp-hour capacity. All the parallel batteries in a bank must have the same voltage rating. Batteries can be damaged by excessive overcharging or cycling.

Q2. Are Battery holders in parallel or in series?

Ans:  Placing the supplies in power the batteries or otherwise it is directly in parallel and is always a Bad Idea. Voltages can never be the same, and the batteries' on the other hand are relatively of low internal resistance which will cause a large current from one battery to the other, which isn't fun for either of them so they are in the series connection.

Q3. What are the disadvantages as well as the advantages of connecting batteries in series or in Parallel?

Ans: Advantages are Connecting batteries in parallel then every unit that is connected in a parallel circuit gets voltage which is equal. If the circuit has a break then the current is able to pass through the circuit through paths which are of different nature. Disadvantages Are that the voltage cannot be multiplied or increased.

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