NEET 2022 | Class 12
banner-image

NEET Important Chapter - Morphology of Flowering Plants

Get plus subscription and access unlimited live and recorded courses
Morphology of Flowering Plants

Morphology of Flowering Plants

Introduction

This document contains the chapter named morphology in flowering plants as per the NEET syllabus for biology. It will be fruitful for NEET aspirants who are looking for the last minute revision notes. 

The following document contains all of the important topics and provides insight of the exam pattern. By going through this document, one can find out all the answers to the important questions related to the chapter such as what is morphology, what are the different parts of the plants, their modifications & their functions, different plant families & their characteristics, etc.


Important Topics of Morphology of Flowering Plants

  • Different parts of the plant 

  • Root & its modification

  • Stem & its modifications

  • Leaf & its modifications

  • Flower & its different parts

  • Fruit

  • Seed: Monocot & Dicot seeds

  • Different plant families & their description


Important Concepts

Definition of Morphology

The branch of science that concerns the study of form, size, colour, and relative positions of different parts of the organism is called morphology.


Different Parts of the Plant

Plant part 

Functions

Root

It provides support to the plant and takes in water and nutrients.

Stem

It supports the leaves and plays an important role in the transport of water and nutrients.

Leaf

It is the green photosynthetic part of the plant that uses sunlight and chlorophyll in order to convert carbon dioxide and water to sugar. Oxygen is produced as a by-product.

Flower

It is the reproductive organ of the plant that gives rise to the seeds.

Fruit

After the ripening, the ovary gets converted into fruit which protects the seeds and plays an important role in the seed dispersal.

Seed

It is the product of sexual reproduction in flowering plants that give rise to new plants after germination.


Roots and Their Modifications

Different regions of the root


Modification of Roots

1. Tap-roots

Modification

Example

Function

Conical

Carrots

Storage of food 

Napiform

Turnip & beetroot

Storage of food 

Fusiform

Radish

Storage of food 

Tuberous

Four o’clock plant

Storage of food 

Nodular roots

Ground nut & pea

Nitrogen fixation


2. Adventitious Roots

Modification

Example

Function

Tuberous

Sweet potato

Storage of food 

Fasciculated 

Dahlia & Asparagus

Storage of food 

Nodulose

Ginger & arrowroot

Storage of food 

Moniliform/Beaded Roots

Grasses & bitter gourds

Storage of food 

Annulated 

Ipecac

Storage of food 

Photosynthetic/Assimilatory Roots

Orchids

Perform photosynthesis

Epiphytic/Hygroscopic Roots

Orchids

Absorbs moisture from the air

Pneumatophores (Respiratory Roots) 

Mangrove plants

Play an important role in respiration

Reproductive Roots

Sweet potato

Play an important role in vegetative propagation

Haustoria (Sucking Roots/ Parasitic Roots)

Cuscuta & Amarbel

Play an important role in deriving nutrition from the host

Prop Roots

Bamboo & Banyan

Provides mechanical support

Stilt Roots

Sugarcane, Maize, and Screw pine                                          

Provides mechanical support

Climbing Roots

Black pepper & Money plant

Provides mechanical support

Clinging Roots

Orchid & Piper betel                                        

Provides mechanical support

Floating Roots 

Jussiaea

Provides mechanical support

Contractile Roots

Canna & Allium

Provides mechanical support

Root Thorns

Pothos 

Provides mechanical support


Stem and Its Modifications

1. Underground Stem Modifications

Modification

Example

Function

Rhizome

Rhizomes

Storage of food 

Bulb

Tulips, Lilies, Onions, and Garlic

Storage of food 

Corm 

Colocasia, Yam, and Saffron

Storage of food 

Tuber

Potato & Artichokes

Storage of food 


2. Sub-aerial Stem Modifications

Modification

Example

Function

Runner

Grasses, Cynodon, and Oxalis

Play an important role in vegetative propagation

Stolen

Mint & Strawberry

Play an important role in vegetative propagation

Sucker

Chrysanthemum, Banana, and Pineapple

Play an important role in vegetative propagation

Offsets

Pistia & Eichornia

Play an important role in vegetative propagation


3. Aerial Stem Modifications

Modification

Example

Function

Tendrils

Grapevines, Watermelons, Pumpkin, and Cucumber

Play an important role in climbing.

Thorns

Bougainvillea & lemon

Provide protection from grazing animals.

Bulbils

Dioscorea

Play an important role in the storage of food.

Cladode & Phylloclade

Opuntia, Euphorbia, and Asparagus

It plays an important role in the formation of food  by the process of photosynthesis.


Leaf and Its Modifications

Modification

Example

Function

Phyllode

Australian Acacia

It plays an important role in the formation of food  by the process of photosynthesis.

Leaf-spines

Opuntia

Play an important role in protection.

Tendrils

Lathyrus aphaca

Play an important role in providing support to the weak stem.

Leaf-let hooks

Bignonia unguis cati

Play an important role in climbing.

Insectivorous leaves

Drosera, Venus flytrap

To catch the insect and then digest it to fulfil the nitrogen requirements of the plant.


Flower

It is the reproductive organ of the plant that gives rise to the seeds. It carries male and female reproductive parts. If both the reproductive parts are present together in the single flower, then such flower is termed as bisexual flower. If the reproductive organs of males and females are present separately, then in such a case, the flower is termed as uni-sexual flower. There are mainly four parts of the flower that are sepals, petals, stamen, and pistil.

Different Parts of the Flower

Fruit

It is the seed bearing structure found in flowering plants. After the ripening, the ovary gets converted into fruit which protects the seeds and plays an important role in the seed dispersal. The parts of the fruit are given in the diagram below.

The Structure of Fruit

Seeds

It is the product of sexual reproduction in flowering plants that give rise to new plant after the germination. The differences between monocot and dicot seeds are given below:

Monocot seeds

Dicot seeds

Such types of seeds have one cotyledon.

Such types of seeds have two cotyledons.

Such types of seeds are thin and there is no storage of food in them.

Such types of seeds are fleshy and store food materials.

Endosperm is present.

Endosperm is absent. 

Fibrous root system is present in them.

Tap root system is present in them.

The example includes corn, wheat, and rice.

The example includes peas, almonds, etc.


Plant Families

The comparative description of different plant families is given below:

Solanaceae

Fabaceae

Liliaceae

They are commonly known as night-shades.

They are commonly known as legumes or the bean-family.

They are most popular for their ornamental values.

They show tap-root system.

They show tap-root system.

They show fibrous root system.

The leaves of  members of this family are alternate, pinnately compound or simple, reticulate venation, exstipulate. 

The leaves of  members of this family are stipulate, pulvinus leaf base,  petiolate, pinnately compound or simple, reticulate venation. 

The leaves of  members of this family are simple, alternate, parallel venation, and exstipulate. 

The flowers are complete, hypogynous, actinomorphic, and bisexual.

The flowers are complete, hypogynous, zygomorphic, bisexual, and bracteate/ebracteste.

The flowers are  complete, bisexual, perianth, actinomorphic, and hypogynous. 

The Gynoecium in the Solanaceae family is bicarpellary, bilocular with superior ovary, syncarpous and axile placentation. 

The Gynoecium in the Fabaceae family is monocarpellary, unilocular with superior ovary, single, hairy - stigma and short -style.

The Gynoecium in the Liliaceae family is tricarpellary, trilocular with superior ovary, syncarpous and axile placentation.

The fruits in this family are berries or capsules.

The fruits in this family are legumes. 

The fruits in this family are mostly capsules and sometimes berries.

Seeds are endospermic and numerous.

Seeds are non-endospermic and have one or more seeds.

Seeds are endospermic.


Solved Examples From the Chapter

1. Differentiate between the roots of aquatic plants and terrestrial plants.

Ans:

Roots of Aquatic Plants

Roots of Terrestrial Plants

In this case, roots may be present or may not be present. 

In this case, the roots are very well developed.

In this case, there is poor development of vascular bundles.

In this case, vascular bundles are very well developed.

In aquatic plants, roots get modified to perform  a variety of functions such as photosynthesis, storage of food, gaseous exchange, etc.

In the case of terrestrial plants, roots anchor the plant firmly in the soil as well as absorb nutrients from the soil.


2. “Flower is a modified shoot.” justify the statement. 

Ans: This is because in the case of flowers, the internodes are highly condensed; therefore, the number of appendages such as sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels are generally large.


3. Write a note on the symmetry of a flower.

Ans: On the basis of the symmetry, flower can be:

(a) Actinomorphic: Such kind of symmetry in which a flower can be divided into two equal halves whenever  any radial plane passes through the centre. The example includes mustard, datura, chilli, etc.

(b) Zygomorphic: Such kind of symmetry in which a flower can be divided into two similar halves only in one particular vertical plane. The example includes pea, bean, gulmohar, etc.


Solved Problems of Previous Year’s Questions from the Chapter

1. In Bougainvillea, thorns are the modifications of ?

A. stipules

B. leaf

C. stem

D. adventitious root

Ans: The correct answer is option “C”.

In the case of Bougainvillea, thorns are curved. They play an important role in the climbing. 


2. This is correctly matched with its three characteristics?

A. Maize: C3 pathway, closed vascular bundles, scutellum

B. Onion: bulb, imbricate aestivation, axile placentation

C. Tomato: twisted aestivation, axile placentation, berry

D. Pea: C3 pathway, endospermic seed, vexillary aestivation

Ans: The correct answer is option “B”.

Onion is the modification of the stem. The aestivation is imbricate type (if the margins of sepal and petals overlap one another but not in any particular direction). The placentation (arrangement of ovules in the ovary) is axile kind.


Tomatoes have valvate aestivation. Maize shows C4 pathway. The vascular bundle is open type. Pea plants show the C3 pathway. The seeds are non-endospermic and the  aestivation is valvate or imbricate type.


3. Root plays an insignificant role in the absorption of water in?

A. Pea

B. Wheat

C. Sunflower

D. Pistia

Ans: The correct answer is option “D”.

Pistia is commonly known as water lettuce. It is the hydrophyte which floats on the surface of the water and its roots are hanging submerged beneath the floating leaves. So, its roots have an insignificant role in water absorption.


Practice Questions

1. Veins of the leaves are useful for

A. Mechanical support

B. Transport of water and minerals

C. Transport of organic nutrients

D. All of the above

Ans: The correct answer is option “D”.

Veins in leaves are made up of xylem and phloem. It performs varieties of functions such as mechanical support, transport of water, minerals, and organic nutrients.


2. In a pitcher plant, the pitchers are modified

A. fruits

B. branches

C. petioles

D. leaves

Ans: The correct answer is option “D”.

Pitcher plant is the type of carnivorous plant where pitchers are used to trap the insects and later digest them. They do so to fulfil their nitrogen requirements.


Conclusion

This article contains all the important information as per the requirement of students who are preparing for the  NEET and can be really helpful for a quick and effective revision. It includes all the important concepts and topics, questions from the previous year’s NEET exam, NEET mock test as well as the Biology NCERT. Make sure to try the practice questions on your own to test your knowledge and to get desired outputs. 

See More
NEET Important Dates

NEET Important Dates

View All Dates
NEET 2022 exam date and revised schedule have been announced by the NTA. NEET 2022 will now be conducted on 17-July-2022, and the exam registration closes on 20-May-2022. You can check the complete schedule on our site. Furthermore, you can check NEET 2022 dates for application, admit card, exam, answer key, result, counselling, etc along with other relevant information.
See More
View All Dates
NEET Information

NEET Information

Application Form
Eligibility Criteria
Reservation Policy
Admit Card
NTA has announced the NEET 2022 application form release date on the official website https://neet.nta.nic.in/. NEET 2022 Application Form is available on the official website for online registration. Besides NEET 2022 application form release date, learn about the application process, steps to fill the form, how to submit, exam date sheet etc online. Check our website for more details.
NEET 2022 applicants should be aware of the eligibility criteria before applying to the exam. NTA has released all the relevant information on the official website, i.e. https://neet.nta.nic.in/. NEET 2022 aspirants should have passed Class 12th or any other equivalent qualifying examination in 2021, 2020, or students appearing in the Class 12th final exam in 2022 can also apply. For further details, visit our website.
As per the union government’s norms, NTA has released the NEET 2022 reservation criteria for different candidates’ categories (SC/ST/OBC/PwD), All India Quota, State Government Quota, Deemed Universities, and more. You can check more details on Vedantu website.
NEET 2022 Admit Card will be released by the NTA in the month of June 2022. Candidates can download the NEET admit card and hall ticket from the NEET official website i.e. https://neet.nta.nic.in/. For more details on the NEET admit card 2022, candidates can check Vedantu official website.
NEET 2022 Study Material

NEET 2022 Study Material

View NEET Syllabus in Detail
Download full syllabus
Download full syllabus
View NEET Syllabus in Detail
NEET 2022 Study Material

NEET 2022 Study Material

View all study material for NEET
All
Physics
Chemistry
Biology
See All
NEET Question Papers

NEET Question Papers

NEET 2022 Book Solutions and PDF Download

NEET 2022 Book Solutions and PDF Download

View all NEET Important Books
Biology
NCERT Book for Class 12 Biology
Physics
NCERT Book for Class 12 Physics
Chemistry
NCERT Book for Class 12 Chemistry
Physics
H. C. Verma Solutions
See All
NEET Mock Tests

NEET Mock Tests

View all mock tests
"NEET 2022 free online mock test series for exam preparation are available on the Vedantu website for free download. Practising these mock test papers of Physics, Chemistry and Biology prepared by expert teachers at Vedantu will help you to boost your confidence to face the NEET 2022 examination without any worries. The NEET test series for Physics, Chemistry and Biology that is based on the latest syllabus of NEET and also the Previous Year Question Papers."
See More
NEET 2022 Cut Off

NEET 2022 Cut Off

NEET Cut Off
NTA is responsible for the release of the NEET 2022 cut off score. The qualifying percentile score might remain the same for different categories. According to the latest trends, the expected cut off mark for NEET 2022 is 50% for general category candidates, 45% for physically challenged candidates, and 40% for candidates from reserved categories. For the general category, NEET qualifying marks for 2021 ranged from 720-138 general category, while for OBC/SC/ST categories, they ranged from 137-108 for OBC, 137-108 for SC and 137-108 for ST category.
See More
NEET 2022 Results

NEET 2022 Results

The NEET 2022 result is published by NTA on https://neet.nta.nic.in/ in the form of a scorecard on 7-Sep-2022. The scorecard will include the roll number, application number, candidate's personal details, and the percentile, marks, and rank of the candidate. Only those candidates who achieve the NEET cut-off will be considered qualified for the exam.
See More
Rank List
Counselling
Cutoff
NEET 2022 state rank lists will be released by the state counselling committees for admissions to the 85% state quota and to all seats in private medical and dental colleges. NEET 2022 state rank lists are based on the marks obtained in entrance exams. Candidates can check the NEET 2022 state rank list on the official website or on our site.
The NTA will conduct NEET 2022 counselling at https://www.mcc.nic.in/. There will be two rounds of counselling for admission under All India Quota (AIQ), deemed and central universities, AIIMS, JIPMER, ESIC, and AFMC. A mop-up round of NEET counselling will be conducted excluding 15% AIQ seats, while the dates of NEET 2022 counselling for 85% state quota seats will be announced by the respective state authorities.
NTA is responsible for the release of the NEET 2022 cut off score. The qualifying percentile score might remain the same for different categories. According to the latest trends, the expected cut off mark for NEET 2022 is 50% for general category candidates, 45% for physically challenged candidates, and 40% for candidates from reserved categories. For the general category, NEET qualifying marks for 2021 ranged from 720-138 general category, while for OBC/SC/ST categories, they ranged from 137-108 for OBC, 137-108 for SC and 137-108 for ST category.
Want to know which Engineering colleges in India accept the NEET 2022 scores for admission to Engineering? Find the list of Engineering colleges accepting NEET scores in India, compiled by Vedantu. There are 1622 Colleges that are accepting NEET. Also find more details on Fees, Ranking, Admission, and Placement.
See More
question-image

FAQs on NEET Important Chapter - Morphology of Flowering Plants

FAQ

1. Is the morphology of flowering plants important for NEET?

Yes it is important for the NEET exam because it covers most of the important topics and the concepts that are useful for the exam.

2. Does the morphology of flowering plants come under the difficult chapter?

No, it comes under the moderate category. The most difficult part of this chapter is to learn the floral formula of the three families - Fabaceae, Liliaceae, and Solanaceae.

3. Is NCERT enough for preparing for the NEET exam?

Yes, it is enough. One can score very well by going through it again and again because every time a person receives new information which is very important in terms of exams.