Important Notes on Morphology of Flowering Plants for NEET Biology

A Run-through of the Morphology of Flowering Plants

Plant morphology, also called phytomorphology, is the scientific study of the various parts of a plant. Every part of a flowering plant has a specific function to perform. Likewise, each has its own peculiar characteristics and features.

If you’re a budding NEET aspirant, the following important notes of biology for NEET – morphology of flowering plants will help give you a brief idea of all the critical concepts and topics. You'll also know how to study morphology of flowering plants for NEET and pave your way through hundreds of students, right to the top.

Parts of a Flowering Plant

Before you proceed with the morphology of flowering plants NEET notes pdf, let’s take a quick look at all the topics that will be covered here:

  • Root

  • Root modifications

  • Stem

  • Stem modifications

Now, let's dive into the following points.


Ever wonder why a lotus floats on the surface of water, or a mango tree stays rooted in soil? Why do they look so different? What are their seasons of growth, and what is their origin? 

Indeed, there is a whole lot of stuff going on underground, and this is all because of the kind of roots that each plant has. Did you know that the carrot you eat for your salad is a root? If not, read on and find out the different kinds of roots plants have, and the functions they perform.

  1. Tap Roots: Firstly, these roots are mainly found in dicotyledonous plants. For instance, gram and mustard have taproots. The radicle of a dicot plant elongates to form the primary root. Furthermore, this primary root then gives rise to secondary and tertiary roots.

  2. Fibrous Roots: In contrast to taproots, fibrous roots are only present in monocotyledonous plants. For example, wheat and rice feature fibrous roots. A fibrous root features several roots that originate from the base of the plant's stem.

  3. Adventitious Roots: In plants such as the banyan tree, grass and maize, primary roots are not extensions of the radicle. In fact, they form from any type of non-root tissue and can be seen in the form of nodal roots on strawberries and crown roots in such as sub-zero temperatures or lack of nutrition.

In the following section, we shall talk further about roots, root modifications and stems. You’ll have a brief idea about how to study morphology of flowering plants for NEET and pass your tests with flying colours.

Root Modifications

As mentioned above, plants come up with diverse ways to tackle stress, weather, changes in climate as well adapt to their surroundings. Here are the different types of root modifications.

  1. Storage: Plants such as carrot and radish feature taproots that act as storage reserves for the plant body. Plants such as sweet potato have adventitious roots that are modified to store food and starch.

  2. Support: The banyan tree features prop roots that arise from nodes on the branches. In addition, the stilt roots of maize and sugarcane, that arise from nodes on the lower stems are also modified to provide support.

  3. Aeration: Mangrove plants, such as the Rhizophora are equipped with roots that contain pneumatophores. These help them to survive in extremely marshy habitats. This is also why mangroves have roots that grow upwards, above ground level.

  4. Nitrogen Fixation: Leguminous plants such as the peanut plant have root nodules that help fix atmospheric nitrogen.


Stems don't just help transport nutrients and water in plants but also play a vital role in plant anatomy. Here is a brief overview. 

  • Stems arise from the plumule of a seed, and the part which gives rise to leaves is called the node.

  • The space between two consecutive nodes is called the internode.

Let’s take a look at the various types of stems and stem modifications. This will help refresh your concepts if you’re wondering how to study morphology of flowering plants for NEET.

Stem Modifications

  1. Underground Stems: As is evident, an underground stem helps the plant to survive in unfavourable conditions and harsh weather. These can be of many types. For example:

    1. Rhizomes: Rhizomes consist of nodes and are found in plants such as ginger and banana. These run parallel with the ground.

    2. Bulbs: The stem of these plants are reduced to a bulbous structure, protected by scaly leaves. For instance, onions and garlic have bulbous stems.

    3. Tubers: In plants such as the potato, the stem is modified to a swollen structure called the tuber.

    4. Corm: These grow vertically, under the ground, for instance, the colocasia plant that has a corm stem.

  1. Stem Tendrils: They are coiled structures that help support tender and delicate parts of the plant from damage. They also aid the plant in climbing. For example, grapes, pumpkins and cucumbers have tendrils.

  2. Thorn: In this, the axillary bud of the plant is modified into thorns. Furthermore, these are incredibly sharp and pointed and help protect the plant body from grazing animals. These are found in plants such as citrus and bougainvillaea.

  3. Subaerial Stems

    1. Offsets: In plants such as the Eichornia and Pistia, the internodes present on lateral branches are reduced. Consequently, this gives way to a bunch or rosette of leaves.

    2. Runners: Plants such as chrysanthemum, pineapple and banana feature branches that arise laterally from the underground part of the stem.

    3. Stolon: Lateral branches of plants like the mint rise and then bend down to touch the soil. At this point, it gives rise to a root. Subsequently, a new daughter plant is formed.

Xerophytic plants such as the euphorbia and cactus that grow in extremely hot weather possess stems that are completely modified. These serve to perform a broad range of functions. For instance, in cactus, the stem becomes fleshy, and leaves are modified into thorns to reduce the loss of water by transpiration.

Here’s a table showing all the types of stem modifications.

Aerial Stem Modifications






Tubers, corms, bulbs




Stolons, runners, rhizomes


Prickles, thorns

This was all about the various types of roots, root modifications, and stems in flowering plants. If you are someone who finds yourself searching "how to study morphology of flowering plants for NEET” on Google, time and again, this is exactly the right resource for you.

Ace Your Way Through the NEET Exams!

We all know how challenging the NEET exams are, and that’s why you need to study the best morphology of flowering plants NEET notes PDF. These will help give you a short and concise run-through of all the essential topics and what all you need to keep in mind. It'll equip you with information that's precise and in your fingertips.

With these short-bulleted points, you’ll know how to study morphology of flowering plants for NEET. So, without further delay, pull up your socks and get ready to ace NEET with the best rank!

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How to study morphology of flowering plants for NEET?

Ans. Firstly, assess the extent of your syllabus and what all important topics are to be covered, learn up all the specific terminologies such as the different kinds of stem modifications, stolons, runners, among others. Thirdly, make sure you have all the notes at hand and can successfully manage time.

2. What is morphology of plants?

Ans. The scientific study of the different parts of a plant is called morphology. It is also known as phytomorphology.

3. Who is the father of phytomorphology or plant morphology?

Ans. Wilhelm Hofmeister was a German botanist who founded the subject of plant morphology.