Genetic Diversity

Bookmark added to your notes.
View Notes
×

Introduction 

A single species can display a high genetic diversity across its distribution range. The genetic variation shown by the Rauwolfia vomitoria medicinal plant growing in various Himalayan ranges could be in terms of the potency and concentration of the active chemicals (reserpine) in the plant. India has more than 50,000 genetically different rice types and 1,000 mango varieties.

Genetic Diversity Definition

Genetic diversity is the variability or variety within animal, group, or assembly. As we know, because of their distinctive genes, every single individual is unique. Every human being, for example, is special in its physical appearance. That is due to their genetic uniqueness. Similarly, this term encompasses different populations of a single species, such as the numerous dogs or rose breeds.

Conservation of Genetic Diversity

Activities such as limited crop selection, destruction of natural habitats, resulting in a loss of diversity.

Gens that get lost could have many benefits, so it's important to preserve diversity for human well-being and protect a species from extinction.

For cases of drought or a sudden disease epidemic when the entire crop is killed, genetically diverse and disease-resistant crops can be produced by diversity protection.

There are Different Methods to Conserve Biodiversity:

  • In situ conservation

  • Ex-situ conservation

In Situ Conservation: It is difficult to maintain the ecosystem as a whole, so certain "hot spots" are established and protected to protect species that are native to a particular habitat and are threatened, endangered, or at high risk of extinction.

Ex-situ Conservation: Threatened plants and animals are taken from their natural habitat and placed in a special setting for special attention and protection. Topics include botanical gardens, zoos, safari for wildlife, etc.

    • Gametes of endangered species are stored in viable and stable environments for a longer period of time using cryopreservation techniques.

    • Eggs can be in-vitro fertilized, and plants can be propagated by tissue culture.

    • A genomic library is a recent step forward in conserving genetic diversity.

Importance of Genetic Diversity

The large variation of the different gene sets allows for the ability of an individual or the entire population to withstand environmental stress in any form. For example, where some individuals have a stronger capacity to withstand the growing environmental pollution, some don't. This can escalate from the same circumstances into infertility or even death.

So we see how those who can survive and adapt to this transition are far stronger than those who have struggled to do so and have either to leave or die. You can call this process natural selection. This practice results in a loss of genetic diversity in specific habitats. So we see genetic diversity can address natural selection for a better environment in a way.

Genetic Diversity Examples

Genetic diversity occurs in various species, and is not limited to animals or humans. So we'll look at the various examples that will help us to better understand this phase.

Woody Plant Species

Woody plant species are trees that have more genetic diversity like grasses than other vascular plants. This refers both to the populations and to the different species. Another part of the diversity exists because of the extent of each species ' geographical range.

Plus, how far they can move through their genetic information depends on that. For example, wind pollination processes, or dispersing animal seeds. Much of the diversity of these woody plants, though, remains a mystery. The explanation is that it ties in with the separate species ' evolutionary past.

Domestic Dogs

For a long time, human beings have been breeding different dog breeds to make something new with different traits. We see, however, that this genetic variability is reduced because the size of their operational population is restricted by humans who control their access to mates. On the other hand, due to the different breeds diverging, the genetic variation has grown anyway.

Generalist Versus Specialist Species

When we say generalists, we 're referring to the adaptable species that adapt their behavior to plus diet as per the environmental changes. For example, coyotes represent a perfect example of this species.

On the other hand, specialized species are the ones that develop very unique characteristics that enable them to benefit from one particular resource. Hummingbirds for example are members of this species. A more volatile climate benefits both the generalist species and the genetic diversity of these species more.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the Examples of Genetic Diversity?

  • Genetic Diversity Examples

  • Different breeds of dogs.

  • Different varieties of rose flower, wheat, etc.

  • There are more than 50,000 varieties of rice and more than a thousand varieties of mangoes found in India.

2. What Causes Genetic Diversity?

Genetic variation can be produced by mutation (which can create entirely new alleles in a population), random mating, random fertilization, and recombination of homologous chromosomes during meiosis (which reshuffles all within an organism's offspring);

3. What is Biodiversity Genetic Diversity?

Biodiversity is increased through genetic change and evolutionary processes, and that through habitat destruction, reduction in population, and extinction. Genetic Diversity is the diversity of genetic (expressed or recessive) traits within a species ( i.e., between individuals and populations of the same species).