Hibiscus or China rose is an angiosperm belonging to the Malvaceae family. It is widely found in the tropical and subtropical regions and is a cultivated plant. It is used majorly as an ornamental plant and flower. Some other plants belonging to the Malvaceae family are cotton, lady's finger, mallow, etc. The family is also termed the mallow family. Floral Formulas are used for the description of each plant and its features. The floral formula for Hibiscus gives detailed information about the flower.
The floral formula is a numerical and symbolic representation of the morphological features of a flower. It consists of different floral characteristics and structures which comprise a flower. The floral formula of china rose or hibiscus is covered in the syllabus of NEET.
Hibiscus flower floral formula can be written as follows-
Br Brl ⊕ ⚥ K(5) C5 A(∞) G(5)
Every symbol and number in the floral formula has a specific meaning and characteristics to it. Br symbolizes that the hibiscus is a bracteate flower. Brl symbolizes that the hibiscus is also a bracteolate flower. ⊕ symbolizes that hibiscus is an Actinomorphic flower. Actinomorphic flowers are those flowers that have a radial symmetry in them. ⚥ symbolizes the fact that the china rose is a bisexual flower having both androecium and gynoecium. In K(5), K stands for the calyx whorl of flowers. The number 5 symbolizes that there are five sepals in the calyx whorl. The brackets here represent the gamosepalous condition. This means all the sepals are fused into a tube-like structure. C5 symbolizes the corolla whorl with five free petals in a polypetalous state. A(∞) represents the androecium whorl of the flower. There are an infinite number of stamens in the hibiscus fused into a single tube (monadelphous condition) which is attached to the petals (epipetalous). The attaching line from C5 to A(∞) shows the epipetalous condition. G(5) represents the gynoecium whorl of the flower with 5 representing 5 fused carpels. The line below G represents superior ovary or hypogynous condition.
The floral formula for hibiscus is extremely helpful in depicting floral morphological characters of the flower. The floral formula of China Rose along with the floral diagram is important from point of view of the NEET examination.
1. Write about the Characteristic Features of the Malvaceae Family.
Some characteristic features of the Malvaceae family are-
Flowers have epicalyx or bracteoles.
The androecium has numerous stamens which are fused into a single tube-like structure exhibiting monadelphous condition. Anthers are uniform and monothecous. The staminal tube encloses the gynoecium.
The gynoecium is multicarpellary, syncarpous, multilocular, with the superior ovary and axile placentation.
The members of the family exhibit entomophilous pollination because of which flowers are brightly coloured and have extrafloral nectaries.
2. Describe the Root, Stem, Leaf and inflorescence of the Malvaceae Family.
The roots, stems, leaves and inflorescence of the Malvaceae family have their characteristics. These are-
Root: There is a profusely branched tap root system in the Malvaceae family.
Stem: The stem is aerial, branched and erect. The stem is herbaceous and young portions are covered by trichomes.
Leaves: These plants possess simple leaves with alternate phyllotaxy (arrangement of leaves on the stem in an alternative manner). They have reticulate venation. The leaves are stipulate and petiolate.
Inflorescence: The inflorescence is essentially cymose with solitary cymes in the raceme.
3. Give Some Economic importance to the Hibiscus Flower.
Hibiscus rosa sinensis is majorly used as an ornamental plant. It has its importance in folk medicine and is used as a diuretic and mild laxative. It finds its use in the treatment of cancer, cardiac and nerve diseases. It is recommended for good hair growth and hence used in hair products. There are other species of hibiscus used for various other purposes. Some tropical varieties are edible and used in salads. The edible varieties are rich in vitamin C and antioxidants which cure a cold helps to boost immunity and achieve clear skin.