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Last updated date: 23rd May 2024
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A Detailed Overview of Euglena and Its Features

Is the topic of Euglena – Overview, Classification, Structure and Functions for NEET Biology giving you a hard time? If yes, then how about Vedantu making it easy for you? Vedantu has brought this as well as many other topics of NEET Exams for you in an easier and more understandable format. All these are available for free and made available to you by Vedantu’s experts in biology.  For this particular topic, let’s start by understanding what Euglena is. 


Euglena comes under the category of eukaryotes, meaning it has a nucleus within its cell membrane. Unlike the prokaryotes, one of the prominent Euglena characteristics is that these organisms are bigger by almost ten times. However, both types have other organelles inside the plasma membrane. 


Herein, you will find Euglena structure and classification explained in detail for your fundamental understanding. Make sure you go through each section thoroughly to Ace the Exam with flying colours.


Like every other living organism, scientists have categorically defined Euglena for a universal understanding. Here is the table for the relevant data. Ensure that you remember each category distinctively to avoid confusion in the Exam.


Classification of Euglena

Many times questions based on an organism's place in biological classification have appeared in the NEET Examination. Therefore we have discussed the classification of Euglena in a tabular format, this will help you in remembering it easily.  











Super phylum







From the table, you can see Euglena is categorised under eight heads. Remember, every classification has a reason behind it, which has made the Euglena fall into a specific class or order or phylum. For instance, one of the Euglena characteristics is that it has chlorophyll, hence it is put under phylum euglenozoa. 


Structure of Euglena

To understand the fundamental structure, here is a Euglena diagram to help you. Carefully look at the picture, which shows how the plasma membrane has enclosed all the organelles inside it. Also, note the nucleus represented with red color. 


(Image will be Uploaded Soon)


For your convenience, each organelle is well labelled. Also, you should note here that their properties remain the same, similar to any other eukaryotic cell. To help you understand, here is a short description of some of the essential constituents of Euglena.

  • Stigma

It is an area that is sensitive to light. Therefore, the stigma helps it to move towards a light source to conduct photosynthesis. 

  • Flagellum

It is a long thread-like structure that works as a navigator or a steering wheel in a car. The thin filament helps Euglena to move forward in any direction it desires.

  • Chloroplast

It is the organelle present inside the plasma membrane that helps in conducting photosynthesis. 

  • Vacuole

This helps in expelling excess water inside the membrane into the reservoir. This excess water, if not expelled, will burst the cell entirely.

  • Pellicle 

It is a thick membrane that is present on the other side of the filament-like structure. This also helps in moving forward when Euglena is wriggling.

  • Nucleus 

It is the central organelle of Euglena that contains a nucleolus and DNA. The nucleus is responsible for conducting cellular activities.


You are now aware of the cell constituents and their functions. Make sure you get through them all in detail for an in-depth clarification. Also, refer to the diagram as you study the Euglena characteristics. 


Functions of Euglena

By now, you might have known Euglena is capable of moving and also reproducing. Hereunder, we will dig deeper into these two concepts for a better hold on this topic.

  • Reproduction

The Euglena undergoes asexual reproduction. That being said, Euglenas divide themselves longitudinally into two halves and produce offspring. Their entire life is spent in a swimming stage where they flat freely and survive in a non-motile stage.

Here in the Euglena reproduction, they have a thick wall that protects them from external injuries. In some other instances, most Euglenas come together and form a mass by leaving their flagella. They come together into a soft substance that is mostly gelatinous.


Binary fission occurs, and the Euglenas produce their daughter cells. These cells then grow their respective flagella and become Euglenas again. Then they come out of the mass, which is termed as the palmelloid stage.

  • Locomotion 

The Euglena structure facilitates it to perform locomotion. As already discussed, it has light receptors like features called the stigma, it helps in moving. The stigma navigates or guides the Euglena towards the light to undergo photosynthesis. This is called phototaxis movement.


In another instance, there might be more than one flagellum to help the Euglena in locomotion. In case, there are more than one flagella, both differ in size. The longer one protrudes out of the cell to help in swimming and move forward. Whereas, the shorter one remains inside the cell.


Hence, now you know how Euglena moves and spends their entire lifetime. Although this topic does not end right here, there is always scope for more learning. Here is a short guide to help you make the most of your time available before NEET. 


Get Hold of the Basics and Ace Your Exams 

High scores are mandatory now, considering the fierce competition or securing a decent career. Since your journey in the medical field is only about to begin, it is better to be cautious right from your first step. To start with, study all your lessons, including Euglena's characteristics and others and revise them.

Also, do not forget to check the Euglena diagram. It will build a more robust understanding and help you retain information longer. Besides, get adequate sleep and ensure a balanced diet while you prepare. Indulging yoga or meditation can also help you in keeping calm and motivated. 



This much information about Euglena will put you in a position where you will be able to answer all the questions related to it in the Exam hall of the NEET Examination. It will also help you in other medical entrance Exams as well such as JIPMER, AIIMS, and IPU NEET. 

FAQs on Euglena

1. What do you understand by euglena?

Euglena is an eukaryotic cell that has a plasma membrane covering all its organelles. It belongs to kingdom Protista and phylum euglenoza. 

2. What are the fundamental characteristics of euglena?

The fundamental euglena characteristics include containing chlorophyll and performing locomotion with a pellicle. Both these features resemble plant-like and animal-like characteristics.

3. What is the basic anatomy of euglena?

The basic anatomy of euglena is that it has a nucleus and a cell membrane. Its nucleus controls the cellular activities, and the membrane encloses all the organelles, thereby protecting the innerds

4. How is the locomotion of euglena like?

For locomotion, euglenas use their filament-like structure called a flagellum. They also possess a pellicle that is the thick membrane, which helps them in movement. 

5. Is Vedantu helpful in understanding the topic of Euglena – Overview, Classification, Structure and Functions for NEET Biology?

Vedantu has supplied a lot of study material for students preparing for the NEET Examination for years now. Students themselves have testified how helpful these free study materials are. The same has been applied while preparing Euglena – Overview, Classification, Structure and Functions for NEET Biology for you. Reading this will help you cover the topic in its entirety. After reading this you will be in a position to answer all the questions related to Euglena not just in NEET biology Exams but also in other medical entrance Exams. 

6. What all topics do I need to cover while studying Euglena – Overview, Classification, Structure and Functions for NEET Biology?

The topic of Euglena – Overview, Classification, Structure and Functions for NEET Biology is a very important one. To score well in the NEET biology Exams, you need to cover this topic holistically. Thus you need to cover each and every sub-topic in detail. You need to cover the definition of Euglena, its overview, its classification, the structure of Euglena, functions of Euglena and its diagram. All of this is made available to you for free on Vedantu’s website. You can access it directly without paying any charges.

7. How many times do I need to study Euglena – Overview, Classification, Structure and Functions for NEET Biology to memorize it completely?

The number of times one needs to study a topic to memorize it completely is very subjective and differs from student to student and depends on several factors. The same applies to the topic of Euglena – Overview, Classification, Structure and Functions for NEET Biology. But we suggest you study this topic from Vedantu’s website. Here the topic is covered in a very concise manner. This will enable you to revise this topic multiple times and thus help you in remembering it on the day of the Exam. Also, Vedantu has provided you with a neat labelled diagram. This will help you in understanding the topic better.   

8. How important is the diagram of Euglena – Overview, Classification, Structure and Functions for NEET Biology?

Biology is a subject where diagrams play a very important role in understanding the concepts as well as in scoring good marks in the Exam. Thus you are expected to know the diagram of Euglena – Overview, Classification, Structure and Functions for NEET Biology thoroughly. You also need to be well versed with the labels. In NEET Exams in the past few years, it has been observed that many diagram-based questions have been asked, here the diagram of Euglena – Overview, Classification, Structure and Functions for NEET Biology will help you.   

9. How do I study the topic of Euglena – Overview, Classification, Structure and Functions for NEET Biology?

Vedantu understands how difficult it can get for students to study and remember the topic of Euglena – Overview, Classification, Structure and Functions for NEET Biology. Therefore to help students Vedantu has brought the above article which covers the topic completely. You can break the topic into various sub-topics and dedicate sufficient time to each one of them individually. Also, try to establish relations between each topic. In this way, you will be able to cover the topic in a few days. You can also refer to previous year NEET question papers available on Evdantu’s website to gain an insight into what type of questions are asked from this particular topic.