Ecology and Environment

An Overview of Ecology and Environment

Ecology is a study of the connection of all living beings between each other and their physical ambience. In, contrast, an environment is the surrounding in which all living forms reside or operate. The study of ecology and environment is crucial for understanding the nature and its operations.

If you are reading Biology concepts to crack NEET exam, you should learn topics related to evolution, plant and animal world, genetics, etc. Therefore, while reading about an ecosystem, learn about ecads carefully.

Do not push yourself too hard. Go through the following points to understand vital concepts of ecology and the environment in detail.

Types of Ecology and Environment

Read the pointers below to learn about the types of ecology and environment to enhance your knowledge. These include:


  • Microbial: The ecology type covers all tiny elements of life, extending up to cellular structures. Mostly, it is a study of the link between microbial entities with each other and their surroundings. It comprises of two life spheres, such as Kingdom Monera and Protista. 

It is essential for evaluating connections related to an evolution of species, and   instances responsible for their existence on earth. The connections help to study a link between different organisms.

  • Behavioural: It is the study of the behaviour of living beings at its primary level, and adaptations of organisms. Through the behavioural ecology, you can evaluate the reason for the changes in action when it closely interacts with its surroundings.

  • Population: The ecology type focuses on the population or group of living beings residing in a definite place at the same time. Therefore, a study of several organisms residing in a place, their density, migration and reactions between them is taken into consideration.

  • Community: Under this type, the community and its behaviours get studied by ecologists (people who study ecology). Therefore, an interaction between populations residing in a given place and time gets observed.

  • Ecosystem: The ecology category focuses on the functioning of an ecosystem. Here, every interaction between living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) beings gets studied in detail.

  • Biosphere: The biosphere ecology covers an understanding of the entire ecosystems impacting the earth. It also includes the study of diverse biomes along with other geographical factors. 


  • Macro:  The environmental type implies the relation and interaction between the entire physical and biotic elements surrounding the organisms from outside. 

  • Micro: The component refers to the immediate surrounding consisting of different organisms. It includes all smaller elements that support life on a planet.

  • Physical: It refers to all the abiotic or non-living elements, such as light, water, soil, temperature, minerals, etc. Also, it comprises the different layers of the sphere.

  • Biotic: It includes all living beings or organisms present on the earth, such as plants, animals, microbes, etc.

Fun Fact: The father of ecology in India is known as Ramdeo Misra (1908 – 1998) due to his unforgettable contributions.

Importance of Ecology and the Environment

Ecology and environment have immense contributions to Mother Nature. Go through the pointers below to study their role.


  1. Conservation of the Environment: Ecology enables one to understand how human actions impact their surroundings. It shows the intensity of damage that humans cause to the environment every day. Therefore, it guides individuals to understand the means for conservation of the environment.

  2. Proper Resource Allocation: Through ecology, one can understand the role of each organism and its contribution to the ecosystem. With the help of such facts, one can get to know which resources are vital for survival, and how its improvement can increase the survival potential of all biotic elements.

  3. Aids the Conservation of Energy: Ecology helps one to understand how energy transmission impacts the environment. One can handle resources accordingly and convert them efficiently.


  1. The primary function of an environment is to facilitate all forms of life on earth. Also, they enhance a healthiness of all species in a given area.

  2. They play a vital function in regulating the air and climate, along with other non-living elements. It is a crucial factor responsible for the existence of life and its growth.

  3. An environment is responsible for the maintenance of all flora and fauna on earth. It also regulates the balance of the ecosystem. 

Did You Know: Arthur Tansley, a British ecologist coined the term ecosystem, and he is known as the father of ecosystem.

Read Important Concepts and Solve Sample Papers to Crack NEET

We assume that following the above guidelines, you can understand what ecology and environment are.

Reading concepts of Biology is essential to score better in your NEET exams. Therefore, it is necessary to learn what ecology deals with and study its importance in detail. Also, try solving previous years’ papers carefully to evaluate your progress.

Besides, you must take care of your body and mind to crack the exam in a single attempt. While studying problematic chapters, do not get anxious. Try taking small breaks or listen to songs to keep stress at bay.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Who Coined the Term Ecology?

Ans. Ecology and environment is a topic that has been studied for ages through generations. However, the term ecology was first proposed by a German zoologist known as Ernst Haeckal in 1869. 

2. What is the Role of an Environment?

Ans. The primary role of an environment is to assist human life on earth and facilitate economic activities. The other functions include enhancing natural resources and protecting marine life. Moreover, it aids the recycling process of nature and absorbs pollution resulting from harmful emissions.

3. What is the Primary difference between Ecology and Its Environment?

Ans. Ecology is a relation between one living being with each other and its surrounding, whereas an environment is a place where both biotic and abiotic things reside. An environment comprises of plants, animals, marine life, land, air, water, etc. It is what the difference between ecology and environment implies. 

4. How is Ecology Related to an Environment?

Ans. Ecology deals with a study of a link between different organisms and their surroundings or environment. It helps you to get a clear picture of the crucial connections between living beings and their world surrounding them.