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Difference Between Self Pollination and Cross Pollination

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Last updated date: 16th Jul 2024
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An Introduction to Pollination: Explaining Self Pollination and Cross Pollination

Pollination can be described as transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma in the same flower or different flower of the same plant as well as different plant but with the same species. Pollination can be done by different modes, it can be done by air, water, rain and insects. Pollination finally leads to fertilization in plants. Pollination can be done within the same flower or different flower of the same plant as well as different plants with the same species. Numerous academic fields, including botany, horticulture, entomology, and ecology, have studied pollination. Christian Konrad Sprengel was the first person to examine the pollination process as an interaction between the flower and pollen vector in the 18th century.


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What is the Mechanism of Pollination and its Significance?

In plants, pollination is crucial for reproduction. In flowers from the same plant or flowers from separate plants of the same species is known as pollination, there are two types of pollination: cross-pollination and self-pollination. The primary difference between these two types of pollination is the location of the pollen grains fall; self-pollination refers to pollination that takes place within the same flower or another flower of the same plant, whereas cross-pollination refers to pollination that takes place in another flower of the same species.


Self Pollination and Cross Pollination Difference

Cross Pollination:

Cross pollination is the type of pollination in which pollen grains are transferred from anther to stigma one flower to another flower of a different plant of the same species. Allogamy, another name for cross-pollination. The reproductive parts of plants that are designed for cross-pollination may be organised so that self-fertilization is unlikely, or the stamens and carpels may develop at different times, among other defences. Examples of self pollinating plants include :- apple, tulip, lavender, strawberries, beans.


Self Pollination

Self pollination can be defined as the pollen grains are to be transferred from one flower to another flower of the same plant or within the same flower. It usually happens in the absence of reliable pollinators. Examples of self pollination include:- eggplant, pepper, tomatoes, legumes, okra.


Self pollination can be further classified into three sub categories:


(a) Autogamy

(b) Gietonogamy

(c) Cliestogamy

In autogamy pollination occurs within the same flower , where pollen grains transferred from anther of the same flower to stigma of the same flower. In blooming plants, autogamy takes the form of self-pollination, eg. Green gram, black gram, soybean, chickpea, and pea.


In geitonogamy pollination takes place in different flower ,where pollen grains transferred from anther of one flower to stigma of another flower on the same plant. Monoecious plants—those that produce both male and female flowers—are more likely to exhibit this trait. Examples include maize and maize.


Cliestogamy can be described as self-pollination, which takes place before the bloom opens. The pollen is either discharged from the anther inside the flower or forms a tube that extends from the anther to the ovules via the style. In contrast to asexual breeding practices like apomixis, it is a form of sexual breeding.


Methods of pollination

There are two main ways of pollination: 

Biotic Pollination-Angiosperms depend on biotic pollination in about 80% of cases. Pollen vectors—organisms that transfer pollen grains from one flower's anther to another's receptive carpel or pistil (stigma)—are essential for Biotic pollination. About 1,500 species of birds and mammals visit flowers and may exchange pollen, but insects make up the majority of these pollinators. These include monkeys, lemurs, squirrels, rats, and possums in addition to birds and bats, which are the most regular visitors.

Abiotic Pollination: Abiotic pollination is the transport of pollen from one flower to another using non-living agents such as wind and water rather than living organisms. Abiotic pollination enables plants to focus their efforts on producing pollen rather than luring pollinators with blooms and nectar.


Difference Between Self Pollination and Cross Pollination:

S.No

Self Pollination

Cross Pollination

1.

Transfer of pollen grain from one flower to another flower or within the flower of same plant

Transfer of pollen grain from anther to the stigma of another flower of different plant of same species

2.

Small number of pollen grain required for fertilization

Large number of pollen grain required for fertilisation

3.

Types of fertilization include: - autogamy and geitonogamy

It include :- allogamy

4.

Pollens shed directly onto stigma of same flower of different flower of same plant

Pollens are transferred through wind, insect, water, animal

5.

Smaller flowers are there in compare to cross pollinating flower

Flowers have big petals, are scented, have long stamen and pistils

6.

Examples are: - tomatoes, potatoes, apricot, oats, rice

Examples are:- apples, grapes, plums, pears

 

Summary                                         

Pollination is essential for plant reproduction. Cross-pollination and self-pollination are the two types of pollination that occur in blooms from the same plant or flowers from other plants of the same species. Self-pollination refers to pollination that occurs within the same flower or another flower of the same plant, whereas cross-pollination refers to pollination that occurs in another flower of the same species. The key difference between these two types of pollination is the location of the pollen grains fall.

FAQs on Difference Between Self Pollination and Cross Pollination

1. Can all flower undergo self pollination and cross pollination?

No, it is not possible for all slower to undergo self pollination and cross pollination as self-pollination is the process of transferring anthers from one flower to stigma to another flower stigma on the same plant. Self-pollination is not feasible in unisexual flowering plants because all of their flowers have either an anther or a stigma, respectively.

2. How long can pollen survive?

Throughout the four-week storage period, pollen remained viable and capable of successful pollination. After four weeks at room temperature, pollen lost its vitality. After 40 weeks of storage at 4°C and 96 weeks of storage at both 20 and 80 °C, pollen is still alive.

3. Does self pollination require a pollinating agent?

No self pollination process does not require a pollinating agent for pollination to occur, when the stamen and the carpel, the two reproductive components of a flower, reach full maturity at once, self-pollination takes place itself as self pollination occurs when pollen grain falls into the same flower or different flower of the same plant. So, No pollinators, nectar are needed for this strategy to draw insects or birds attention.