Courses
Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
More

Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Transalation

ffImage
Last updated date: 27th Feb 2024
Total views: 68.1k
Views today: 1.68k

Introduction on Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Translation

Translation, the process of protein synthesis, differs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotic translation occurs in the cytoplasm and is closely linked to transcription, allowing for simultaneous gene expression. Prokaryotic mRNA lacks introns, and translation can initiate at multiple points along the mRNA molecule. In contrast, eukaryotic translation takes place on ribosomes bound to the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm.


Prokaryotic mRNA lacks introns, and translation initiation can happen at any point on the mRNA. In contrast, eukaryotic translation takes place on ribosomes bound to the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm.These distinctions reflect and helps us to explain prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation, Characteristics of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Translation, What is Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Translation , Prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation difference etc.

What is Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Translation?

Prokaryotic Translation: 

In prokaryotes, translation occurs in the cytoplasm. It is closely coupled with transcription, allowing for simultaneous gene expression. Prokaryotic mRNA is typically polycistronic, meaning it can contain multiple coding sequences for different genes. 


Translation initiation in prokaryotes is facilitated by ribosome binding to specific sequences called Shine-Dalgarno sequences, and it can occur at any point along the mRNA molecule.


Prokaryotic: 

In eukaryotes, translation also occurs in the cytoplasm, but it is spatially and temporally separated from transcription. Eukaryotic mRNA undergoes post-transcriptional processing, including the removal of introns, before being transported to the cytoplasm for translation. Eukaryotic mRNA is typically monocistronic, meaning it carries the coding sequence for a single gene. 


Translation initiation in eukaryotes occurs at the 5' cap of the mRNA, and the ribosome scans along the mRNA until it finds the start codon.


Characteristics of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Translation

Prokaryotic Translation:

Coupling with Transcription: Prokaryotic translation is closely coupled with transcription. Ribosomes can start translating the mRNA while it is still being synthesized by RNA polymerase, allowing for simultaneous gene expression.


Polycistronic mRNA: Prokaryotic mRNA is often polycistronic, meaning it can contain multiple coding sequences for different genes within a single mRNA molecule. This allows for the production of multiple proteins from a single mRNA transcript.


Eukaryotic Translation:

Spatial Separation from Transcription: Eukaryotic translation is spatially separated from transcription. Transcription of the DNA into mRNA occurs in the nucleus, and the processed mRNA is transported to the cytoplasm for translation.


Monocistronic mRNA: Eukaryotic mRNA is typically monocistronic, meaning it carries the coding sequence for a single gene per mRNA molecule. Each mRNA molecule encodes a specific protein, allowing for precise regulation of gene expression.


Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Translation

S.No

Category

Prokaryotic 

Eukaryotic

1.

Location

Cytoplasm


Cytoplasm



2.

Coupling with Transcription

Coupled with transcription


Transcription and translation are spatially separated

3.

mRNA Structure

Lacks introns


Post-transcriptional processing removes introns

4.

Polycistronic mRNA

Very Common

Very Rare

5.

Initiation Mechanism

Shine-Dalgarno sequences, can initiate at any point

Initiates at the 5' cap, requires scanning for start codon


Summary

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation exhibit several key differences. Prokaryotic translation occurs in the cytoplasm, coupled with transcription, while eukaryotic translation is spatially separated from transcription. Prokaryotic mRNA lacks introns, while eukaryotic mRNA undergoes post-transcriptional processing to remove introns. Prokaryotic mRNA lacks introns, and ribosomes can initiate translation at any point along the mRNA sequence. In contrast, eukaryotic translation occurs on ribosomes bound to the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm. 


Prokaryotic translation can initiate at any point on the mRNA, facilitated by Shine-Dalgarno sequences, whereas eukaryotic translation initiates at the 5' cap and requires scanning for the start codon and this explain prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation, characteristics of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Translation.

FAQs on Difference Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Transalation

1. Are prokaryotic mRNA molecules typically polycistronic or monocistronic?

Prokaryotic mRNA molecules are typically polycistronic, meaning they can contain coding sequences for multiple genes within a single mRNA molecule. In prokaryotes, multiple genes that are functionally related or part of the same operon can be transcribed into a single mRNA transcript. This polycistronic mRNA is then translated into multiple proteins through the process of prokaryotic translation.

2. What are the differences in post-translational modifications between prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation?

The differences in post-translational modifications between prokaryotic and eukaryotic translation are significant. Prokaryotic translation involves limited post-translational modifications, such as the addition of formyl groups to the N-terminus of certain proteins or the cleavage of signal peptides. In contrast, eukaryotic translation encompasses a wide array of modifications.

3. How does translation regulation differ between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Translation regulation differs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in several ways. Prokaryotic translation regulation primarily occurs at the level of initiation, with regulatory proteins and small regulatory RNAs controlling ribosome binding and mRNA accessibility. In contrast, eukaryotic translation is subject to more extensive regulation. It involves factors such as microRNAs, RNA-binding proteins, and signaling pathways that modulate translation initiation, elongation, and termination.