Transcription is a vital process for both eukaryotic as well as prokaryotic cells. But, is it the same for both of them? It most certainly isn't! There are tons of differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transpiration. These fundamental differences will help strengthen your concepts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription, concerning one another. So, read the article below and get your concept right!
What is Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Transcription?
To explain prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription and their differences, it’s mandatory to understand them. Why? Because only by understanding them individually can we understand the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription. So, keep reading to learn the characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription.
It is the process by which a prokaryotic organism's genetic information in a cell is transcribed into RNA molecules. The beginning of prokaryotic transcription starts when RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template at the promoter region. Through it, by unwinding the DNA double helix using RNA polymerase, complementary RNA strands are synthesized. These are synthesised based on the DNA template's nucleotide sequence. It is all under the elongation part of the transcription process and ends on reaching a terminal signal.
Although a process complex for prokaryotes, prokaryotic transcription is still nowhere near as complex as eukaryotic transcription.
A crucial process to convert genetic information from DNA to functional RNA molecules in eukaryotes is Eukaryotic Transcription. It occurs in three main steps- initiation, elongation, and termination. And they all take place in a eukaryotic cell's nucleus. The enzyme that facilitates this process in eukaryotes is RNA polymerase II. It does so by recognising promoters (specific DNA sequences). Other than that, the transcription factors play a crucial role by ensuring proper initiation through recruiting RNA polymerase.
The RNA molecule's functionality and stability are kept intact post-transcription by RNA splicing, and capping. It's another aspect that makes eukaryotic transcription different from prokaryotic transcription.
Difference between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Transcription
Do you always wonder about the prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription difference? Then the table below will cover all your doubts regarding the prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription- differences:
Similar Characteristics of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Transcription
Although there are significant differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic transcription processes, there are also some notable similarities:
1. Initiation: Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic transcription involve the recognition of specific DNA sequences to initiate transcription. In prokaryotes, a sigma factor assists RNA polymerase in binding to the promoter region, while in eukaryotes, transcription factors aid in promoter recognition.
2. Elongation: Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic transcription involve the synthesis of RNA by RNA polymerase moving along the DNA template strand, adding nucleotides to the growing RNA molecule.
3. Termination: In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, transcription is terminated by specific signals. Prokaryotes typically have two termination mechanisms: rho-dependent termination, where a protein called rho assists in transcription termination, and rho-independent termination, which involves specific DNA sequences. Eukaryotes use polyadenylation signals and termination factors to terminate transcription.
4. RNA Processing: In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, the newly synthesized RNA molecules undergo processing steps. In prokaryotes, mRNA molecules are typically ready for translation immediately after transcription. In eukaryotes, however, mRNA undergoes additional processing steps, such as RNA splicing to remove introns, the addition of a 5' cap, and the addition of a poly-A tail.
Conclusively, on reading the above article, you will have no doubts about the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription. Not only that, but you'll be able to explain prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription alongside categorically differentiating them. Is that all? No! This article also provides you with a guide to similarities shared between both prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription. Therefore, it's a perfect guide to understanding the relationship between prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription.