Difference Between Chlorophyll and Chloroplast

Difference Between Chlorophyll and Chloroplast: All You Should Know

Green plants depend on chlorophyll in their cells to produce food and nutrition. The only chemical compound capable of directly deriving nutrition from the sun’s rays, chlorophyll is the prime reasons for the green colour of plants.

Chloroplast, on the other hand, refers to the organelle where photosynthesis takes place. It is vital for NEET aspirants to understand the difference between chlorophyll and chloroplast.

One of the major differences between the two, for instance, is that chlorophyll is present in the mesophyll cells, while chloroplast occurs in the cytoplasm of plant cells.


Chlorophyll Definition and Characteristics

In simple terms, chlorophyll refers to a green pigment in plants that trap sunlight and use its energy to provide nutrition for the plants, through a process known as photosynthesis. Its characteristics include the following 

  • Chlorophyll responsible for plants to grow healthy.

  • It causes the green colour in plants and trees.

  • Produces food in plant cells, primarily found in chloroplast.

  • Chlorophyll’s structure is similar to that of haemoglobin and cytochromes, both of which are derived from protoporphyrin.

  • Chlorophyll is often termed a cell’s powerhouse, similar to mitochondria. This is because this enzyme is responsible for ATP synthesis and energy derivation within the cell. 

  • Chlorophyll absorbs blue and red wavelengths of light while reflecting the green.


Chloroplast Definition and Characteristics

Chloroplast can be termed as the organelles or the site where chlorophyll traps sunlight and synthesizes ATP in a plant cell. Listed below are some characteristics of chloroplast that you need to remember – 

  • This organelle is present in all green plants.

  • Chloroplast is responsible for a wide range of activities apart from photosynthesis, such as carbon assimilations, light reactions and much more.

  • A fluid stroma lies enclosed in a double membrane.

  • Thylakoids, which are floating sacs, are arranged as granum inside this chloroplast.


Distinction Between Chlorophyll and Chloroplast

Now that you understand the characteristics of both chlorophyll and chloroplast, here is a detailed look at the difference between chlorophyll and chloroplast.

Factor

Chlorophyll

Chloroplast

Meaning

Chlorophyll refers to a pigment responsible for the green colour in plants.

Chloroplasts are organelles within a plant cell, acting as the site for photosynthesis.

Role

Pigment necessary for photosynthesis.

Chloroplast is the region where photosynthesis occurs.

Types

Primarily two kinds – chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.

Chloroplast has no divisions.

Pigments

Green pigment with yellow and red carotenoids.

No pigment present in chloroplast.

Part of

Chlorophyll forms a part of chloroplast.

Chloroplast forms a part of the plant cell.

Occurrence

Chlorophyll is present in all algae, green plants and cyanobacteria.

Chloroplast exists in all algae and plants.

Presence

Present in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplast.

Chloroplast occurs throughout plant body but are more concentrated in leaves.

Consists of

No DNA present.

Contains their own DNA, especially cpDNA.

 

Now that you know the difference between chlorophyll and chloroplast, you should also learn about the difference between two types of chlorophyll.


Difference Between Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b

Both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b are essential for photosynthesis. However, there are some major distinctions between the two types, which help them to work together.

Chlorophyll a

Chlorophyll b

This is the primary photosynthetic enzyme. 

Chlorophyll b is the secondary enzyme, mainly responsible for passing energy to chlorophyll a.

Chlorophyll a absorbs light wavelengths from orange-red light and violet-blue light.

Chlorophyll b only absorbs wavelength from green light.

It absorbs energy at 675nm.

Energy absorption is limited to 640nm.

More absorbent of light.

Less absorbent when compared to chlorophyll a.

Refers to the reaction centre of core protein antenna array.

Chlorophyll b regulates this antenna size. 


Stages of Photosynthesis

Apart from the information above, you must also know that photosynthesis has two distinct stages. Stage I is known as the light reaction, while Stage II is known as the Calvin Cycle. 

  1. Light Reaction

In this first stage, plants use water to transform light energy into chemical energy. This chemical energy is stored in the form of NADPH and ATP. During this reaction, oxygen is released as a by-product.

  1. Calvin Cycle

In this phase, plants absorb carbon dioxide from air, combining this carbon with the stored chemical energy. After combination with NADPH and ATP, this stage produces glucose, which acts as nutrition for plants.

6CO2+6H2O+Light Energy→C6H12O6+6O2


Quick Question

Q. What is the Primary DNA Type in Chloroplast?

Ans. Chloroplast contains DNA molecules of the cpDNA type. 


Preparing for NEET

NEET biology preparation involves a lot more than simply learning about the difference between chlorophyll and chloroplast. It includes complicated topics, which can be difficult to understand and remember. Regular revision of chapters can help with your preparation. Moreover, access to the best study materials can be invaluable at such a time.

NEET may not always be straightforward, which is why you require conceptual knowledge about topics as well. For instance, one question may ask you what is the similarity between chlorophyll and haemoglobin. Answering such tricky questions require you to be thorough of each topic.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are The Three Primary Functions of Chlorophyll?

This enzyme is essential for the process of photosynthesis, through which plants derive nutrition. Chlorophyll is indirectly responsible for absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen.

2. What is The Exact Location of Chlorophyll in a Plant Body?

Chlorophyll is located in the thylakoid membrane of an organelle in plants. This organelle is known as the chloroplast.

3. What Are The Other Types of Chlorophyll Apart From a And b?

While chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b are the two most important types of the pigment, it has further minor types as well, including chlorophyll c, d and e. All types apart from chlorophyll a are only found in distinct plants and algae only.

4. What is The Colour of Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b?

Chlorophyll a exhibit a teal-green colour, while chlorophyll b is green-yellow in colour.