When you look at precious gems, stones and minerals, you will find that some are really shiny and some are not. This is due to the fact that certain substances reflect light in various ways. Some have a 'glassy' appearance, and others have a 'waxy' appearance. Some are characterised as 'dull' because they do not reflect light well. The various ways in which these objects reflect light can be related to a property known as 'lustre.'
Luster is a property that defines how light is reflected on a mineral's surface. It is one of the properties that mineralogists consider when determining the identity of a mineral.
Different Types of Luster
The Earth is rich in minerals of various types. Because lustre is a mineral property, it varies greatly, so there are many different types. Mineralogists first categorise lustre into two types: metallic and nonmetallic. Metallic minerals have an opaque and glittering look. Nonmetallic minerals do not resemble metals and are divided into subcategories, which will be discussed further. The following are the different types of lusters:
1. Metallic and Submetallic
Metallic lustre refers to minerals that are opaque, translucent, and have the appearance of polished metal. Different pyrites, which are used to produce coins, gold nuggets, and copper, are common examples. Minerals with submetallic lustre resemble metals but have become less shiny or dull as a result of weathering and corrosion. Sphalerite and cinnabar are some examples.
Nonmetallic lustre refers to the lustre of minerals that do not appear metallic. These are further classified as Adamantine, Dull, Vitreous, Greasy, and so on.
What is Metallic Lustre?
The quantity and consistency of light reflected from a mineral's exterior surfaces is referred to as lustre. Luster is a measure of how much the mineral surface 'sparkles.' Minerals are classified into two types based on their lustre: metallic and nonmetallic. Minerals with a metallic lustre are opaque and highly reflective, with a high absorptive index. Native copper, gold, and silver, galena, pyrite, and other minerals with metallic lustre are examples.
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Why Do Metals Have Luster?
Elements are made up of tiny pieces known as atoms. Electrons, protons, and neutrons make up an atom. The nucleus, or centre, of the atom, is made up of protons and neutrons. Electrons travel in clusters known as clouds around the nucleus. The electrons farthest from the nucleus are responsible for a metal's lustre. These outer electrons reflect or bounce light. This gives the metal a glittering appearance. The shiny appearance of certain metals' surfaces is referred to as lustre. Gold and silver are used to make jewels because they have a perfect gleaming lustre. Polishing a metal piece improves its lustre. This is because polishing eliminates particles that accumulate on the metal's surface over time.
Gold Mineral Luster
Gold is one of the most well-known and common minerals, known for its importance and unique properties since the dawn of time. The majority of natural gold specimens discovered since ancient times have been smelted for processing. As a result, fine specimens are highly valued and are worth much more than the normal gold price. More specimens have recently been available to collectors, as more miners have saved some of the larger parts for the collectors market.
In its natural mineral form, gold almost always contains traces of silver, and it can also contain traces of copper and iron. A gold nugget is usually 70 to 95 percent gold, with the rest being mainly silver. Pure gold is a bright golden yellow, but the higher the silver content, the whiter the hue. Most of the gold extracted comes from gold ore rather than gold specimens. The ore is usually brown, iron-stained rock or massive white Quartz, with only minute traces of gold. The ore is crushed to remove the gold, which is then extracted from the ore using different methods.
Gold nuggets, a common type of gold among collectors, are created when erosion causes a large piece of gold to break from its mother rock and be carried downstream in a stream or river. The Gold is tumbled by the rushing water, giving it its distinctive rounded shape. The gold finally settles at the bottom of the water and stays there due to its heaviness. Other nuggets become entangled in the same region, resulting in the formation of a placer deposit.
While silver, gold, and copper have similar electron configurations, we perceive them to have very different colours. Electrons absorb incident light energy and are excited from lower to higher, empty energy levels. The excited electrons will then return to lower energy levels and emit the energy difference as a photon. So, they are the reason for Gold Mineral Luster properties.
Identifying and categorising minerals is one of the tasks that mineralogists must perform. While a mineralogist can use a high-powered microscope to identify certain minerals, the majority can be identified by physical properties such as colour, streak, and lustre. Luster is the reflection of light off the surface of a mineral. Mineralogists use specific terminology to explain lustre. The mineral's metallic or non-metallic status is one easy way to classify lustre. Minerals with a metallic lustre, such as pyrite, are opaque and shiny. Quartz, for example, has a nonmetallic lustre. The electrons farthest from the nucleus are responsible for a metal's lustre. These outer electrons mimic or bounce light. This gives the metal a gleaming appearance. The shiny appearance of certain metals' surfaces is referred to as lustre.