Gaia hypothesis can also be referred to as Gaia theory or Lovelock Gaia because it was conceived and introduced to the world by a chemist, James E. Lovelock in the early 1970s. The James Lovelock Gaia hypothesis provides a newer perspective to look at the global ecology and its evolution. The Gaia model was formed by James E. Lovelock and biologist Dr. Lynn Margulis. It is different from the traditional portrayal of ecology, which presents it as a consequence of a biological response to the classical menu of physical conditions.
Meaning of Gaia Hypothesis
Gaia hypothesis meaning can be understood by the Gaia hypothesis definition that can be stated as an interaction between living organisms on the Earth with their inorganic surroundings forming a complex, self-regulating and synergistic system that helps perpetuate and maintain optimum conditions for life on the planet.
It was hypothesized that by using the Gaia principle one can detect life in the atmosphere of other planets. The Gaia theory of James Lovelock was a relatively cheaper and reliable way to use such interactive combinations to find the possibility of life on planets other than the Earth.
Initial Gaia Hypothesis
The initial Gaia hypothesis states that the Earth has maintained its habitable state through a self-regulating feedback loop that is automatically carried out by the living organisms that are tightly coupled to their respective environments. The observations made in the James Lovelock Gaia Hypothesis were:
Despite an increase in energy provided by the sun, the earth’s global surface temperature has been constant.
Owing to the activities of life of the living organisms, the atmosphere is in an extreme state of disequilibrium of thermodynamics and yet the aspects of its composition are astoundingly stable. Even with so many atmospheric components of varying degrees like 20.7 percent of oxygen, 79 percent of nitrogen, traces of methane, and 0.03 percent of carbon dioxide, the atmospheric composition remains constant rather than unstable.
Constant ocean salinity for a very long time can be contributed to the seawater circulation via the hot basaltic rocks that emerge on ocean spreading ridges as hot water vents.
The earth system has consistently and continuously recovered from massive perturbations owing to its self-regulation complex process.
James Lovelock views this entirety of complex processes on the Earth’s surface as one, to maintain suitable conditions for life. The earthly processes from its formation to its disturbances, eruptions, and recovery is all considered to be one self-regulating system.
Criticisms and Refinements of the Gaia Hypothesis
The Gaia theory named after the Greek Goddess Gaia, which represents the Earth was however heavily criticized initially against the natural selection principles proposed by Charles Darwin. The other criticism of the Gaia theory was its teleological nature of stating finality and not the cause of such occurrences in Lovelock Gaia. The refined Gaia hypothesis that aligned the Gaia model with the production of sulfur and iodine by sea creatures in quantities approximately required by the land creatures that supported and made the Gaia theory stating interactions stronger that bolster the hypothesis.
Arguments and Criticism
The theory and hypothesis were criticized due to the following reasons.
The significant increase in global surface temperatures contradicts the observatory comment according to the theory.
Salinity in the ocean is far from being at constant equilibrium as river salts have raised the salinity.
The self-regulation theory is also disregarded as evidence against it was surfaced by reduced methane levels and oxygen shocks during the various ice ages that are during the Huronian, Sturtian, and Marinoan or Varanger Ice Ages.
Dimethyl sulfide produced by the phytoplankton plays an important role in climate regulation and the process does not happen on its own as stated by James Lovelock.
Another claim that stated the Gaia theory is contradictory to the Natural Selection theory and is far from the survival of the fittest theory that was the greatest diversion according to Lovelock’s theory.
The other criticisms stated that Gaia had four hypotheses and not just one.
(a) Coevolutionary Gaia stated the environment and the life in it evolved in a coupled way that was criticized stating Gaia theory is only claiming that it has already been a scientifically accepted theory.
(b) Homeostatic Gaia stated that the stability of the natural environment is maintained by life and that stability enables life to exist disregarded stating it was not scientific because it was untestable.
(c) The Geophysical Gaia hypothesis stated new geophysical cycles that only aroused curiosity and piqued interest in researching the terrestrial geographical dynamics.
(d) The optimizing Gaia hypothesis was also disregarded because of its untestability and therefore unscientific nature that stated the planet shaped by Gaia made life for the environment as a whole.
The refined New Gaia hypothesis was a counter-argument by James Lovelock. Lovelock along with Andrew Watson developed a new model that is the Daisyworld Simulations which is a mathematical model. Daisyworld is to be considered a planet where only daisies grow and there are black daisies and white daisies. The conditions in the Daisyworld are in many respects similar to that of the Earth.
Water and nutrients are abundant in Daisyworld for the daisies.
The ability to grow and for the daisies to spread across this imaginary planet’s surface depends entirely on the temperature.
The climate system in Daisyworld is simple with no greenhouse gases and clouds.
The planetary incident light and radiation that affects the surface temperature depends on the aerial coverage of the grey soil by the white and black daisies.
In this model, the planetary temperature regulation is underpinned by ecological competition by examining the energy budget which is the energy provided by the sun and with high energy temperature increases, and with low energy the temperature decreases.
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The graphical presentation of the Daisyworld simulations shows it is parabolic with minimum temperature, optimum temperature, and maximum growth temperature.
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The albedo that is the reflection and the absorption of light is influenced by the colour of daisies.
Light- The black daisies warm the Daisyworld by absorbing more light and white daisies cool the planet by reflecting more light.
Growth- Black daisies grow and reproduce best at temperatures relatively lower than the white daisies that thrive at a higher temperature.
When the temperature rises Daisyworld’s surface is filled with more white daisies that reduce heat input and consequently cooling the planet. For instance in figure 3 given below.
With the decline in temperatures, the scenario in figure 2 takes place wherein the white daisies are outnumbered by the black daisies making the planet warmer by increasing absorption of the energy provided by the sunlight.
Plant reproduction becomes equal when temperatures converge to the value of both their reproductive rates, both will thrive as shown in figure 1.
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Result of The Refined Gaia Hypothesis
The Gaia hypothesis through the Daisyworld simulations proved that the percentage of black daisies in comparison to white ones will continuously change so both could thrive. This further shows that competition and even with a limited range of conditions like on the planet Daisyworld can also support life with stabilized temperatures. In other words, if the sun’s energy output changes the temperature of the planet will greatly vary due to wide and different degrees of albedo.
Gaia Hypothesis Summary
The Gaia hypothesis has had its fair share of criticism because of its need for more explicit formulation and consequently it being untestable and hence not scientifically proven. Even with this through the years various modifications have been done and via these two models of Gaia emerges the weak Gaia hypothesis that suggests the planetary processes are substantially influenced by the life on the planet which is widely supported. The other model is known as the strong Gaia hypothesis that states that life creates the earth’s systems in other words planetary processes are controlled by life which is not supported and widely accepted.