Before we begin to understand the Exosphere definition, let us discuss the atmosphere a little. The gas and aerosol envelope that stretches from a planet's ocean, soil, and ice-covered surface outward into space is known as the Atmosphere. Since the gravitational attraction of the earth, which draws gases and aerosols (microscopic suspended particles of dust, soot, smoke, or chemicals) inward, is strongest close to the surface, the density of the atmosphere decreases outward. Some planetary bodies, such as Mercury, have almost no atmosphere because the primordial atmosphere has escaped the planet's comparatively low gravitational attraction and has been released into space. The atmosphere is divided into temperature-based layers. These layers are known as the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. Furthermore, a region at about 500 km above the Earth's surface is known as the exosphere.
So, let’s discuss about Exosphere now. The exosphere is the outermost area of a planet's atmosphere, where molecular densities are low and collisions between molecules are extremely unlikely. The base of the exosphere is referred to as the critical level of escape since, in the absence of collisions, lighter, faster-moving atoms such as hydrogen and helium achieve velocities sufficient to escape the planet's gravitational field. Most molecules, on the other hand, have velocities that are significantly lower than the escape velocity, so their rate of escape to space is very limited.
The exosphere of the Earth starts about 500 kilometres (300 miles) above the terrestrial surface and continues through the magnetosphere and beyond to the interplanetary medium. Temperatures in the Earth's exosphere are stable with altitude and average about 1500 K. The exosphere is largely composed of light gases such as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, atomic oxygen, and helium. All of the gases described above are so light that they can escape the Earth's gravitational magnetic force and scatter freely across space.
The Earth's atmosphere is divided into many layers. We reside in the troposphere, which is the thickest layer of the atmosphere. The stratosphere is above that, followed by the mesosphere, thermosphere, and finally the exosphere. The exosphere's top denotes the boundary between the Earth's atmosphere and interplanetary space. The exosphere is the Earth's atmosphere's outermost layer. We already know that it begins at an altitude of about 500 km and extends to an altitude of about 10,000 km. Within this area, atmospheric particles can travel hundreds of kilometres in a ballistic trajectory before colliding with any other particles in the atmosphere. Particles will escape out from the exosphere into deep space.
It is the Earth's atmosphere's least dense layer. Since it is situated above the thermosphere and in contact with outer space, scientists refer to it as a transit point between the atmosphere and interplanetary space.
Because of the low gravity, certain gases contained in this layer will escape and travel to outer space. In a vacuum, these gases normally diffuse.
Heat cannot be transferred in this layer because of the low particle density caused by the high air density. The temperature of a gas is directly related to the average speed of its atoms and molecules: the faster the particles, the higher the temperature.
Particles in the exosphere will travel at high speeds.
It orbits a large number of artificial satellites, mostly meteorological satellites.
Atmospheric gases such as oxygen and nitrogen are almost non-existent in this layer, and the presence of certain matter particles is barely discernible.
Exosphere bodies may be heated if they are exposed to a sufficient amount of solar radiation.
It is located at an altitude of 530 kilometres above sea level and is devoid of greenhouse gases such as oxygen and nitrogen.
It is the largest layer of the atmosphere, the region most closely monitored by artificial satellites, and it has little impact on meteorological events.
Functions of the Exosphere
Its purpose is to help as a transitional medium to a gravity-influenced zone. It also helps atoms to escape from the atmosphere and into space. It is the only layer of the atmosphere that has a distinct form, as opposed to the other layers. The molecules and gases in the Exosphere are in short supply. Furthermore, these gaseous molecules are separated from one another. They fly at a high speed, which is why they have few, negligible, or minor collisions. It is much farther away from Earth than anybody can imagine, and therefore no meteorological phenomena can occur.
The thermopause is the lower boundary of the exosphere where it interacts with the thermosphere. It begins at an altitude of approximately 250-500 km, but its height is determined by the amount of solar activity. Particles in the atmosphere have atomic collisions below the thermopause, similar to what you would see in a balloon. Above the thermopause, however, this transitions to purely ballistic collisions. The theoretical upper limit of the exosphere is 190,000 km (halfway to the Moon). This is the point at which the Sun's solar radiation overcomes the Earth's gravitational force on atmospheric particles. This has been observed up to 100,000 kilometres above the Earth's surface. The official limit between the Earth's atmosphere and interplanetary space, according to most scientists, is 10,000 kilometres.
Things that are Found in Exosphere
The exosphere is the topmost layer of the Earth's atmosphere, containing only the faintest wisps of hydrogen and other atmospheric gases. It starts near the top of the thermosphere, at around 500 kilometres (310 miles), and ends near the edge of interplanetary space, at around 10,000 kilometres (620 miles). There is almost no 'atmosphere' in this area of the atmosphere: individual particles will travel hundreds of kilometres before colliding, and many of these particles drift off into space. However, there are currently a variety of objects floating about on the cold edge of Earth's atmosphere. In this frigid area of the atmosphere, a number of man-made satellites orbit, ranging from the Hubble Space Telescope to more general weather and photography satellites aimed at Earth can be found in this region.
The exosphere starts 311 to 621 miles above the earth's surface and finishes approximately 6200 miles above the earth's surface.
While the exosphere is the planet's most distant layer of the atmosphere, it is also the planet's first line of protection against the sun's rays. It is also the first layer to make contact with the earth and shield it from meteors, asteroids, and cosmic rays.
The temperature of the exosphere varies dramatically. The temperature is lower at night and much higher during the day.
The exosphere's air is very thin and mainly composed of helium and hydrogen. Other gases, such as atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide, can also be present in trace amounts.
The upper level of the exosphere is the furthest point from Earth that is still influenced by gravity. This size, however, will be halfway to the moon and is only considered valid in a technical sense. As a result, scientists disagree about the actual boundaries of the exosphere.
If the exosphere's limit is assumed to be where it is still influenced by Earth's gravity, the exosphere will constitute the majority of the Earth's atmosphere. If the exosphere's boundary is thought to be approximately 6200 miles from the earth's surface, as many says, the thermosphere is the largest portion of the earth's atmosphere.
The geocorona is the name given to the portion of the exosphere visible from Earth.
The exosphere is ideal for satellite placement because there is no friction and they can orbit reasonably quickly without being interrupted.
Gravity pulls the majority of the molecules in the exosphere down towards Earth's lower atmospheric levels. However, due to the exosphere's low gravity and pressure, some do make it into outer space.
Solar wind storms compress the exosphere, causing pressure to build up.
Since the air in the exosphere is so thin, molecules do not collide like they do in the lower layers of the atmosphere. The majority of the molecules return to the lower layers of the atmosphere, but some escape into space.
Importance of Exosphere
The exosphere contains a region known as the geocorona. The sun's radiation exerts pressure on hydrogen atoms, causing them to scatter ultraviolet radiation and glow as a result. This indicates that the exosphere plays an important role in the absorption of radiation and protection of the layers underneath. If the radiation is allowed to pass through the exosphere, it may be hazardous to the layers below. As previously said, when the thermosphere is exposed to solar radiation, it expands. Without the exosphere as a barrier, the thermosphere would never stop rising, and the Earth's atmosphere would not work properly. If the atmosphere of the earth doesn't function properly, then the ecosystem doesn’t work.
One of the five layers of the Earth's atmosphere is the Exosphere. The troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere are the other layers. The exosphere is the fifth and outermost layer of the atmosphere, starting at the upper boundary of the thermosphere and extending to the lower exosphere, which is referred to as the exobase, exopause, and ‘critical altitude’. Since the upper limit of the thermosphere ranges from 311 to 621 miles, so does the starting point of the exosphere. The term "exosphere" is derived from the Greek word "Exo," which means "outside" or "external." Space starts where the exosphere stops.