An Overview

We will read about the Bhangar Plains which are part of the Indian Plains. We will also learn about the various classification of the Northern plains through a map & diagram and the various classifications of the Bhangar plains and their characteristics. These notes will help the students of Class 9 in understanding the plains of India.


Bhangar Plain

The Bhangar Plains are situated south of the Bhabar and Terai Plains. Unlike the Bhabar Plains which are not good for farming or cultivation because of the presence of the sediments, the Bhangar Plains are suitable for farming and cultivation activities because these are well-drained plains of Northern India.


Map of Bhangar

This map and the diagram shows the classification of the Northern Plains of India. The Bhabar plains are starting from the foothills of the Himalayas. It is clear from the picture, that the Bhabar plains are having sediments deposited by the rivers and thus, these areas are not fertile in nature. Then comes the Terai Plains which are situated between the Bhabar and the Bhangar. These areas are thick forest and marshy areas which are also good for agriculture. Various famous National parks are also situated here. Then comes the Bhangar Plains and the Khadar Plains. The Bhangar are old plains of alluvial soil and the Khadar are new plains of Alluvial soil which are more fertile than the Bhangar.


Features of the Bhangar Plains

The various features of the Bhangar Plains are as follows:


Soil  


Alluvial soil is found in the Indo-Gangetic Plains including the Bhangar Plains. New alluvial soil is found in the floodplains ie. The Khadar Plains of Indo-Gangetic. This new alluvial soil is having extreme fertility and is also uniform in texture. The old alluvial soil is found in the Bhangar Plains which are having little elevated terraces and patches of alkaline efflorescences which are also called as " usar ", which leaves some areas as infertile.


If we talk about Indus basin soils, mostly thick alluvial soil is found there called as the Khadar Soils. Away from the rivers and in the middle of the doabs, older alluvial soil is also widely distributed in those plains which are called the Bhangar soil.


Bhangar soil has a texture of medium to fine levels and also has low organic content.


This soil is highly useful and productive for agricultural activities when good irrigation and fertilisation facilities are available.


Other Features

These plains are beyond the flood plains, thus are less fertile as compared to the Khadar because the content of sandy-loamy soil is higher.


The Barind Plains and the formations of the ‘Bhur’ are some of the regional features of the Bhangar Plains.


The Barind Plains are formed in the delta regions of Bengal and Bhur formations are dominated in Ganga and Yamuna Doab.


The Bhangar Plains also contains fossils of various animals like rhinoceros, elephants, etc.


Kankars are also found in the Bhangar Plains.


Classification of the Bhangar

The Bhangar Plains can be divided into the following categories as per the irrigation levels:

On the basis of the type of irrigation, Bhangar plains can be subdivided into different types, that is the Barani and the Nahri region.

Barani areas are traditionally rainfed areas. They are the lower rain areas where especially low rainfall is there and thus, rain-fed dry practices are performed in such areas. If we talk about Bagar Tract location in India, that is the dry sandy soil region on the border of Rajasthan, adjoining the area of Haryana or Punjab. These regions in India are the places where you can find the old alluvial soil, thus they are referred to as the Barani region. It is important to remember that not all the Barani lands are part of the Bagar tract. Nowadays some Barani areas are dependent on tube wells for irrigation as groundwater levels are not too low at those places. In the age-old land revenue system, legally they may be registered as Barani lands but due to this modern tube well system, it can be popularly known as the Chahi region.

The other type on the basis of irrigation type is the Nahri. Nahri refers to the canal irrigated land. Let us take the example of the Rangoi tract. This area is referred to as the Nahri area because it is being irrigated by the Rangoi canal that flows near it. This canal is used for the purpose of transferring the water from the Ghaggar River to the dry and barren Bangar lands. For irrigation purposes in Nahri lands, the landowners are required to take water from the Warabandi roaster, and water is drawn from this canal. Have you heard about chak? It was the land revenue system at the time of the Britishers. It is the land revenue settlement circle in which the contiguous block of land is marked.

The next type on the basis of irrigation is Chahi. Chahi is any kind of land that is irrigated with the help of wells or tube wells. Chahi Khalis is the land that is especially irrigated by using the wells, while if we talk about Chahi Nahri, it is the land that is partly irrigated using a well and partly irrigated by using tubewell. Chahi sailab is that area that is partly irrigated by wells and partly by floods. Chahi taal or taal is that land that is irrigated using ponds.

Did You Know?

Bhur means the elevated land piece which is created by the accumulation of the sand by the winds along the banks of the Ganga river. We have read about the Bhangar properly along with the map of Bhangar. 

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Write a Short Note on the Bhangar?

The Bhangar Plains are situated south of the Bhabar and Terai Plains. Unlike the Bhabar Plains which are not good for farming or cultivation because of the presence of the sediments, the Bhangar Plains are suitable for farming and cultivation activities because these are well-drained plains of Northern India and availability of alluvial soil here. These plains are beyond the flood plains, thus are less fertile as compared to the Khadar because the content of sandy-loamy soil is higher. The Barind Plains and the formations of the Bhur are some of the regional features of the Bhangar Plains. The Barind Plains are formed in the delta regions of Bengal and Bhur formations are dominated in Ganga and Yamuna Doab. The Bhangar Plains also contains fossils of various animals like rhinoceros, elephants, etc. Not only this, but Kankars are also found in the Bhangar Plains.

2. Write a Short Note on the Bhangar Soil?

Alluvial soil is found in the Indo-Gangetic Plains including the Bhangar Plains. New alluvial soil is found in the floodplains ie. The Khadar Plains of Indo-Gangetic. This new alluvial soil is having extreme fertility and is also uniform in texture. The old alluvial soil is found in the Bhangar Plains which are having little elevated terraces and patches of alkaline efflorescences which are also called as " usar ", which leaves some areas as infertile. If we talk about Indus basin soils, mostly thick alluvial soil is found there called as the Khaddar Soils. Away from the rivers and in the middle of the doabs, older alluvial soil is also widely distributed in those plains which are called as the Bhangar soil. Bhangar soil is having a texture of medium to fine levels and also have low organic content. This soil is highly useful and productive for agricultural activities when good irrigation and fertilization facilities are available.


Northern Plains are one of the most important features of Indian Geography. These plains are the backbone of Indian agriculture and rural & urban development. In this article, we have studied the Bhangar plains in detail. We hope these notes will help you to understand the concept.

3. What type of soil is Bhangar?

Bangar, also known as bangad or bhangar, basically refers to the areas that are beyond the floodplains. These areas lie more towards the upland. If you compare these areas with Khadar areas, then it consists of old alluvial soil which is higher in sandy loam content. These areas are less prone to floods that are dangerous for crops as they are located away from the river sources. The Bangar region consists of more sandy soil which is less fertile so it will be very difficult to grow crops here.

4. Explain the difference between the Khadar and the Bhangar soil?

Bhangar soil is less fertile and Khadar soil is more fertile. Bhangar soil is the old alluvial soil that is not suitable for growing crops. It is not beneficial for cultivation as compared to the Khadar soil. This soil is more fertile and is new alluvial soil which is very beneficial for cultivation. These kinds of soils need less irrigation and are really good for crop growth.

5. In India, what are the main regions where you can find the bhangar soil?

Bhangar areas have infertile soil. Thus, the areas are extremely unfit for the growth of crops. They are situated on elevated lands and they need to be irrigated quite often. In India, there are many regions that have bhangar soil. Let's have a look at the main areas of bhangar soil in India. It is mainly from the south of the Shivalik from Jammu to the Assam region. It is found in more areas in the western region of India as compared to the eastern regions.

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