In this article, we will read about especially the Bhangar Plains which are part of the Indian Plains. We will also learn about the various classification of the Northern plains through a map & diagram and the various classifications of the Bhangar plains and their characteristics. These notes will help the students of Class 9 in understanding the plains of India.
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The Bhangar Plains are situated south of the Bhabar and Terai Plains. Unlike the Bhabhar Plains which are not good for farming or cultivation because of the presence of the sediments, the Bhangar Plains are suitable for farming and cultivation activities because these are well-drained plains of Northern India.
Map of Bhangar
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This map and the diagram shows the classification of the Northern Plains of India. The Bhabar plains are starting from the foothills of the Himalayas. It is clear from the picture, that the Bhabar plains are having sediments deposited by the rivers and thus, these areas are not fertile in nature. Then comes the Terai Plains which are situated between the Bhabar and the Bhangar. These areas are thick forest and marshy areas which are also good for agriculture. Various famous National parks are also situated here. Then comes the Bhangar Plains and the Khadar Plains. The Bhangar are old plains of alluvial soil and the Khadar are new plains of Alluvial soil which are more fertile than the Bhangar.
Features of the Bhangar Plains
The various features of the Bhangar Plains are as follows:
Alluvial soil is found in the Indo-Gangetic Plains including the Bhangar Plains. New alluvial soil is found in the floodplains ie. The Khadar Plains of Indo-Gangetic. This new alluvial soil is having extreme fertility and is also uniform in texture. The old alluvial soil is found in the Bhangar Plains which are having little elevated terraces and patches of alkaline efflorescences which are also called as " usar ", which leaves some areas as infertile.
If we talk about Indus basin soils, mostly thick alluvial soil is found there called as the Khadar Soils. Away from the rivers and in the middle of the doabs, older alluvial soil is also widely distributed in those plains which are called as the Bhangar soil.
Bhangar soil is having a texture of medium to fine levels and also has low organic content.
This soil is highly useful and productive for agricultural activities when good irrigation and fertilization facilities are available.
These plains are beyond the flood plains, thus are less fertile as compared to the Khadar because the content of sandy-loamy soil is higher.
The Barind Plains and the formations of the ‘Bhur’ are some of the regional features of the Bhangar Plains.
The Barind Plains are formed in the delta regions of Bengal and Bhur formations are dominated in Ganga and Yamuna Doab.
The Bhangar Plains also contains fossils of various animals like rhinoceros, elephants, etc.
Kankars are also found in the Bhangar Plains.
Classification of the Bhangar
The Bhangar Plains can be divided into the following categories as per the irrigation levels:
These areas are called as rain-fed areas means low-rainfall areas. Bagar Tract is an example of this type which is dry sandy land on the borders of Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab. Some of the Barani areas have started using the tubewell facilities wherever groundwater levels are fine. Thus, those can be termed as Chahi which is another type, also discussed below.
These are those areas that are irrigated by the canal system of irrigation. For example, Rangoi Tract is irrigated by the Rangoi Canal which was made to extract the flood water of the Ghagghar River to dry areas of Bhangar Plains.
These are those areas that are irrigated by the wells or tubewells system. For example, Khalis land is irrigated by well system, Chahi Nahri is irrigated by both well and canal. Chahi Sailab, which are part of Khadar Plains, are irrigated by both wells and the floodwater.
Did You Know?
Bhur means the elevated land piece which is created by the accumulation of the sand by the winds along the banks of the Ganga river.
We have read about the Bhangar properly along with the map of Bhangar. Let's practice some FAQs: