## Yield Formulas

Yield is a percentage word for the earnings created and realised on an investment over a certain period. The percentage is calculated using the amount invested, the current market value, or the investment security's face value. Interest or dividends obtained from owning certain securities for a specified period are included in yield. However, financial gains are not taken into account. Yields are characterised as known or expected depending on their nature and valuation (whether constant or fluctuating).

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### Percentage Yield Formula

The ratio of actual yield to theoretical yield is the percentage yield formula. Yield is a measure of the number of moles of a product generated in a chemical reaction in proportion to the amount of reactant consumed, generally given as a percentage. The percentage yield is the difference between the actual amount of product produced and the maximum calculated yield.

The experimental yield divided by the theoretical yield multiplied by 100 is the percentage yield formula. The percent yield is 100 percent if the actual and theoretical yields are equal. Because the actual yield is typically lower than the theoretical value, the percent yield is usually less than 100 per cent.

Percentage yield =\[\frac{Actual\, Yield}{Theoretical\, Yield}\] x 100%

### Theoretical Yield Formula

The yield of a reaction is defined as the quantity of a product produced from the reaction. The theoretical yield is the quantity of product anticipated by stoichiometry, whereas the actual yield is the amount achieved in reality. The proportion of the theoretical quantity is represented as a reaction yield.

For calculating theoretical yield formula is as follows:

Theoretical yield = \[\frac{Actual\, Yield}{Percentage\, Yield}\] x 100

### Annual Percentage Yield (APY)

The annual percentage return is readily calculated by the APY formula. The yearly interest rate and the number of compounding periods are used to calculate it. The formula for APY is as follows:

APY = \[(1+ \frac{r}{n})^{n} - 1\]

Where,

r = Annual Interest Rate

n = Number of Compounding Periods Each Year

### Percentage Atom Economy Formula

Barry Trost of Stanford University (US) developed the Atom Economy idea, for which he earned the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award in 1998. It's a way of expressing how well a reaction uses the reactant atoms.

The amount of starting materials that end up as useful products is measured by the atom economy of a process.

The use of reactions with a high atom economy is important both for sustainable development and economic reasons.

The percentage atom economy formula is given as,

Atom economy =\[\frac{Mass\,of\, atom \, in\, desired\, Product}{Mass\,of\, atom \, in\,Reactants}\] x 100%

### Solved Examples

Example.1. During a chemical reaction, 0.9 g of product is made. The maximum calculated yield is 1.8g. Calculate the percentage yield of this reaction by using percent yield formula chemistry?

Solution:

Substitute the values in the corresponding percentage yield formula,

Percentage yield =\[\frac{Actual\, Yield}{Theoretical\, Yield}\] x 100%

Percentage yield =\[\frac{0.9}{1.8}\] x 100%

Percentage yield = 0.5 x 100%

Percentage yield =50%

Example.2. Determine the theoretical yield of the formation of geranyl formate from 465 g of geraniol. A chemist making geranyl formate uses 465 g of starting material and collects 419g of purified product. Percentage yield is given as 92.1%

Solution:

The actual yield is 419 g which is the quantity of the desired product.

Percentage yield is 92.1%

Therefore, by using the theoretical yield formula chemistry is as,

Theoretical yield = \[\frac{Actual\, Yield}{Percentage\, Yield}\] x 100

Theoretical yield = \[\frac{419}{92.1}\] x 100

Theoretical yield = 4.545 x 100

Theoretical yield =454 g

Example.3. Find the APY on $1000 at the compound interest rate of 9%, compounded monthly.

Solution:

Using the APY formula

APY = \[(1+ \frac{r}{n})^{n} - 1\]

APY = ( 1 + 0.09/12)12 - 1

APY = \[(1+ \frac{0.09}{12})^{12} - 1\]

APY = 0.0938

Hence the APY is 9.38%.

Q.1) What is the Percent Yield in a Chemical Reaction?

Answer: The percent yield is the actual yield divided by the theoretical yield. It is determined by dividing the experimental yield by the theoretical yield and multiplying by 100%. The percent yield is 100 percent if the actual and theoretical yields are equal. Because the actual yield is typically lower than the theoretical value, the percent yield is usually less than 100 per cent. Incomplete or competing responses, as well as sample loss during recovery, are possible causes. Percent yield might be higher than 100%, indicating that more samples were retrieved from a reaction than expected.

Q.2) What Factors Affect Percent Yield?

Answer: Temperature and pressure have an impact on the yield and pace of a chemical reaction. Chemical engineers create procedures in the manufacturing business that maximise yield and production rate. They also want to cut waste and energy expenses every step of the way.

Q.3) Why is 100 Yield Impossible?

Answer: When a reaction is carried out in the lab, the actual yield is the amount of product that is produced. The percent yield is the percentage difference between the actual and theoretical yields. Because of the factors mentioned previously, percent yields are often less than 100 percent. However, if the measured result of the reaction contains impurities that cause its mass to be higher than it would be if the product were pure, percent yields greater than 100% are conceivable.