Mercury II Chloride Formula

Formula for Mercury II Chloride

The formula of Mercury II Chloride is also known as Mercury dichloride formula or mercuric chloride formula. The formula of mercury chloride contains one mercury cation (Hg+2) with the two chloride anions (Cl-1).  Usually, mercury II Chloride exists as a white coloured crystalline solid. It is a heavy component with no odour. Mercury chloride is readily soluble in ethyl acetate,  hot water, acetone, and ethanol. But they are poorly soluble in cold water. Likewise, mercury 2 chloride can slightly dissolve in pyridine and benzene. Mercury II Chloride (HgCl2)is also termed corrosive sublimate. Here, the standard molar entropy of HgCl2 is 144 J·mol−1·K−1. The standard enthalpy of formation are −230 kJ·mol−1.

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Molecular Formula of Mercuric Chloride

Mercury (Hg) is the 80th element of the periodic table. Chloride is the 17th element of the periodic table. Here, one anion of mercury is combined with the two chloride cations.  The molecular weight of mercuric chloride is 271.52 g/mol. The density of mercuric chloride is 5.43 g/cm3. Further, the boiling point of mercuric chloride stays at 304 °C and they start to melts at 276 °C. Likewise, mercuric chloride has the orthogonal crystalline structure and linear molecular structure with zero dipole moment. 

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Mercury II Chloride Synthesis 

Mercury II Chloride can synthesis from industries. The mercuric chloride is synthesized by obtaining by adding hydrochloric acid to a hot concentrated solution of mercury(I) nitrate compounds. 

Hg2(NO3)2 + 4 HCl → 2 HgCl2 + 2 H2O + 2 NO2

Properties of Mercuric Chloride 

  • Mercury II Chloride composed of linear triatomic molecules, and it shows a tendency to sublime.

  • Mercury II Chloride can be used as an anti-infective agent. It can disinfectant the bacterial cell walls. 

  • They are used as a fungicide in the agricultural field. 

  • While intaking Mercury II Chloride, it may cause ulcer in the stomach, throat, and corrosive damage to the intestine. Further, it may cause acute kidney damage. 

  • Frequent exposure to poisoning mercury may lead to delayed reflexes, insomnia, excessive salivation, tremors, bleeding gums, fatigue, and dental problems.


Mercury II Chloride is widely used in the medical field as an antiseptic and disinfectant. As they can easily denature the cell of bacteria. Further, it is an extremely toxic, heavy compound. They are strong enough to cause severe damage to the skin, eyes during their direct contact. 

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. Write the Formula for Mercury II Chloride?

Ans: Mercury 2 Chloride formula is HgCl2. Mercury II chloride is formed by combining mercury atoms with the two chlorine atoms.  The molecular weight of Mercury II Chloride is 271.52 g/mol. Further, the density of Mercury II Chloride is 5.43 g/cm3.  

Q2. Are Mercury I Chloride and Mercury II Chloride the Same Compound?

Ans: Calomel (Hg2Cl2) is also known as mercurous chloride or mercury(I) chloride. It is a soft, white colour, heavy, odourless, and tasteless halide minerals, which are formed by alternation of other mercury minerals, such as cinnabar or amalgams

Q3. What is the Use of Mercury Chloride?

Ans: Mercury II chloride (HgCl2) is a highly toxic compound, which can volatize slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100° C. Mercury II Chloride can create corrosive mucous membranes. They are widely used as topical antiseptic and disinfectants. Chlorine is an electronegative compound, which can oxidize the peptide linkage and denatures the microbes protein.  Inhaling mercury vapour may cause harmful effects for human beings.