Environment of Decision Making

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What is Decision Making?

It's said that the primary role of any manager is decision-making. Managers take a sequential series of actions to make sound choices that are in the company's interest. This method is known as the process of decision making. The atmosphere of decision making, however, is also an essential factor in this process. Let us learn some crucial aspects of decision making.

 

We often face circumstances in our everyday lives where we need to make choices. Making a decision is not a simple task; you will be badly affected by a wrong decision while making the right decision will favour you and support you. 

 

Decision Making and Choice

Decision-making is the thought process of selecting a choice between the options available. When we settle on a choice, it is a goal to eliminate any doubt and hesitation. Typically, the best decisions are the decisions that will bring successful outcomes. We need to look at both the positive and negative aspects of each choice when making decisions. Before making a decision, we should always think of all the alternatives and weigh them wisely.


It is possible to consider decision-making as the mental processes (cognitive process) that lead to choosing a course of actions between many alternative scenarios. Any decision-making process generates a final choice. An act or an opinion of choice may be the product of decision-making.


The ability to predict the outcome of the choices available is essential to make the right decision. The steps involved in the decision-making process are:

  • Define the Problem

  • Determine Requirements

  • Establish Goals

  • Identify Alternatives


Step 1. Define the Problem

Collecting all the relevant data and determining the intent and root causes of a problem is the first step in defining a problem. Our aim at this stage is to obtain a conceptual description. This abstract definition will be used as a basis that we can later redefine and form. However, this does not mean that we are just looking at a part of the picture or just a wild guess.


Step 2. Determine Requirements

At this point, the specifications and conditions needed to solve the problem are decided by us. Like a software upgrade, before it can be implemented successfully, some specifications must be met. This is to ensure that our shareholders’ interests are still secured by the solution that we are implementing.


Step 3. Establish Goals

Goals are the desired result that we would like to see in the outcome of decision-making. 

Determine the targets are merely setting a goal well in contrast to the minimum desires. 


Step 4. Identify Alternatives

And we're finally defining all the alternatives. All of these alternatives must at least satisfy the minimum criteria we have previously determined. To see whether it meets the requirements or not, we must look at all the other options. Those alternatives which do not fulfill the requirement are omitted. We will end up with a couple of better options by doing this filtering. We can then compare and determine which is the better choice to choose from.

 

Types of Decision Making Environment

We can experience several times in decision-making where we don't have the necessary information to decide and keep hesitating. It's often a decision that we have a lot of data with the circumstances and are very specific. There are three types of settings for decision making that we can define. There are also -

  • Decision Making in Certain Conditions

  • Decision Making in Uncertain Conditions

  • Decision Making in Risky Conditions

Decision Making in Certain Conditions

Decision-making under such circumstances ensures that the person who makes a decision has all the complete and appropriate knowledge for the decision to be made. With all the data available, the individual can predict the outcome of the decision. We can easily create a particular decision with confidence by being able to predict the result. Typically, the product that gives the best outcome will be used and carried out.

 

Decision Making in Uncertain Conditions

When you are unaware of the situation, making a decision is similar to the absence of information to help us decide. The decision-maker doesn't know the future because of inadequate knowledge and can't predict the outcome of any choice he has. The decision-maker will have to judge and decide based on their expertise to decide under certain circumstances. They have to communicate and seek advice from people who have more experience if they do not have those experiences. However, there is a slight risk involved because we cannot predict the outcome, but knowledge from the past will close the gap.

 

The success or failure of the said company would be determined by the nature of the decisions made in it. So before making an important decision, all the knowledge and alternatives available must be studied. The decision-making process will help a great deal. The atmosphere in which they are made is another aspect that impacts these decisions. In which these choices are made, there are a few different types of environments.  

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1: What Do You Mean by Decision Tree? Explain the Steps Involved in the Process of Decision Making?

Ans: The central role of management is decision making. New research methods are being developed that help decision-making. The decision tree is one such method. It is a visual graph that maps any possible consequence of a specific decision using the branching process. The steps involved in the decision-making process are - 


1) Certainty 

By its design, such a form of environment is very healthy and inevitable. This implies that all the information is available and at hand. It is also easy to achieve and not very costly to obtain such information. So the manager has all the data he will need to make a decision that is educated and well thought out. It is also possible to evaluate all of the alternatives and their effects, and then the manager selects the best option.


2) Uncertainty

The knowledge available to the manager is incomplete, inadequate, and frequently inaccurate in Uncertainty's decision-making atmosphere. All is in a state of flux in an uncertain environment. Several external and random forces mean that it is most unpredictable to the ground.

 

All the variables shift rapidly in these periods of chaos. But to the best of his ability, the boss has to make sense of this mayhem. As per his judgment, he must establish some order, obtain credible data, and make the best decision.


3) Risk

There is the probability of more than one incident taking place under the risk scenario. That implies that the manager must first assess the likelihood and possibility of the event's occurrence or non-occurrence.

Q2: Explain Decision Making and also Explain the Decision-making in Certain Conditions?

Ans: 

It's said that the primary role of any manager is decision-making. Managers take a sequential series of actions to make sound choices that are in the company's interest. This method is known as the process of decision making. The atmosphere of decision making, however, is also an essential factor in the process.  

 

Decision Making in Certain Conditions

Decision-making under such circumstances ensures that the person who makes a decision has all the complete and appropriate knowledge for the decision to be made. With all the data available, the individual can predict the outcome of the decision. We can easily create a particular decision with confidence by being able to predict the result. Typically, the product that gives the best outcome will be used and carried out.