In very simple terms, a bank is separated from other financial banks by credit creation. Credit Creation is basically the expansion of the deposits. Also, the banks can expand their demand deposits as a multiple of their cash reserves because the demand deposits serve as a principal medium of exchange.
Demand deposits are a very crucial constituent of the money supply. The expansion of the demand deposits means the expansion of the money supply. The entire banking structure is based on credit. The meaning of credit is to get the purchasing power now and promising to pay at some time in the future. And bank credit means the bank loans as well as the advances. A bank keeps a certain part of its deposits as a minimum reserve to meet the demands of its depositors and the rest is lending out to earn an income. The account of the browser is given the loan. Each and every bank creates an equivalent deposit in the bank. Hence, credit creation means to expand bank deposits.
The banks are bound to pay cash to their depositors when they exercise their right to demand cash against their depositors.
The banks always look for profit. They are profit-driven enterprises. This is the reason why a bank must grant loans in such a manner that will help to earn higher interest than what it pays on its deposits.
The bank’s credit process is totally based on the assumption that at any time only a few customers will genuinely need cash. Also on the other hand the banks assume that all their customers will not turn up demanding cash against their deposits at one point in time.
1. Bank as a business institution
One has to believe that banks are a business institution that always tries to maximize profits through the loans and the advances from the deposits.
2. Bank Deposits-
Bank deposits are the basis for credit creation. Bank deposits are of two types as follows:
a. Primary Deposits-
A bank accepts cash from the customers and opens a deposit in his or her name. This is called a primary deposit and this does not mean a credit creation.
These deposits are simply converted into deposit money from currency money. These deposits form the basis for credit creation.
b. Secondary or Derivative Deposits-
A bank grants loans and advances. Instead of giving cash to the borrower, the bank opens a deposit account in his or her name. This is called the secondary or derivative deposit.
Every loan creates a deposit and the creation of a derivative deposit means the creation of the credit.
A central bank is the primary source of money supply in an economy of a nation through the circulation of currency. It ensures the availability of the currency for meeting the transaction needs of an economy. It also facilitates various economic activities such as production, distribution as well as consumption. For this purpose, the central bank needs to depend upon the reserves of the commercial banks which are the secondary source of money supply in an economy.
The most crucial purpose of a commercial bank is the creation of credit. This is the reason why the money supplied by commercial banks is called credit money. All commercial banks create credit by advancing loans and purchasing securities. They lend money to the individuals as well as to the businesses out of deposits accepted from the public.
The commercial banks are not allowed to use the entire amount of public deposits for lending purposes. They are accepted to keep a certain amount as a reserve with the central bank. This is for serving the cash needs of the depositors.
The commercial banks can lend the remaining portion of the public deposits after keeping the expected amount of reserves.
Factors that have an Effect on the Creation of Credit are as Follows:
The capacity of the bank banks to create credits which are the matter of the availability of cash deposits with banks. Also, the capacity to create credit depends on the factors that determine their cash deposit ratio.
The desire of the banks to create credits.
The demand for credit in the market.
1.What is CRR?
CRR is an abbreviation for Cash Reserve Ratio. In India, the CRR that is the Cash Reserve Ratio is decided by the RBI’s (Reserve Bank of India) Monetary policy Committee in the periodic Monetary and Credit Policy. In every monetary policy review, the RBI (Reserve Bank of India) takes stock of the Cash Reserve Ratio. In the RBI’s arsenal, Cash Reserve Ratio is one of the most important weapons.
It allows maintaining a desired level of inflation, controls the money as well as liquidity in the economy. The level of liquidity depends on the CRR (Cash Reserve Ratio). The liquidity with the banks gets higher with lowering the Cash Reserve Ratio which in turn goes into the investment and lending as well as vice-versa.
High Cash Reserve Ratio can very badly impact the economy because the lesser availability of loanable funds slows down the investment. It has a negative impact on the economy. It also reduces the supply of money in the economy.
2.What is the Meaning of Excess Reserve?
Excess reserves are the capital reserves held by a bank or by the financial institution in excess of what is required by regulators, creditors, or by the controls. The central banks measure the Excess reserves against the standard reserve requirements amounts for the commercial banks.
Such required reserve ratios set the minimum liquid deposits that can be reserved in a bank. More is considered as the excess which may also be known as the secondary reserves. The excess reserves or the secondary reserves are a safety buffer of sorts.
In the time of sudden loan loss or significant cash withdrawals by the customers, the excess reserves are an extra measure of safety for the financial firms. In the event of economic instability, this buffer increases the safety of the banking system.