Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry

Analytics of Chemistry

It deals with that part of chemistry, which involves a careful examination of various substances.

In detail, it works with the separation, recognition, and the quantitative analysis of substances. Both classical and modern techniques are used in Analytical Chemistry. And, advanced techniques encouraged the use of scientific apparatus.

Analytical Chemistry Procedures

Analytical Chemistry employs some procedures. They are: 

  • The method of separation of the needed chemical species required to be examined from a chemical blend.

  • Qualitative analysis helps to spot out the analyte substance.

  • The concentration of the analyte in a given blend can be decided through the process of quantitative analysis.

The concept of analytical chemistry usually includes the use of such machines, which are designed with advanced techniques. Still, the roots, onto which these apparatus are made of, can be found more at conventional methods.

Analytical Chemistry Methods

Two methods are involved in determining the identity and quantity of the analytes.  From the viewpoint of analytical chemistry, that can mainly be classified into two ways. One is the classical method, and another one is the instrumental method.

Classical Methods

Many techniques are there to find out the presence and absence of a particular composite in an analyte. Let’s have an elaborate discussion about them:

  • There are many classical techniques of searching for the existence or non-existence of a specific compound in an analyte given. The acid test for gold can be taken as an example. 

Classical Methods for Qualitative Analysis

  • Kestle- Meyer test can be taken as a perfect one to have for qualitative analysis. This involves phenolphthalein as a marker to have an idea about the presence of hemoglobin in a particular analyte.

  • Another example is the flame test. It is employed to check the existence of specific things in an analyte. The element needs to be exposed to a flame. The changing color of the flame can be noticed.

Classical Methods for Quantitative Analysis

  • A close examination named Gravimetric analysis is a traditional way of quantitative analysis. The method is used to decide the amount of water in a hydrate through heating. Through the experiment, the weight of the water lost is calculated. 

  • Volumetric analysis or titration is another well-known classical method of quantitative analysis. This process relates to the addition of a reactant to the analyte. It goes till getting an equivalent point.

Instrumental Methods

  • Spectroscopy includes the calculation of the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation and the atoms or molecules belonging to a sample.

  • The process mass spectroscopy is employed to have the ratio of the mass of the molecule to its charge. It is achieved with the help of electric and magnetic grounds.

  • The electrochemical analysis is a common tool-based technique used in analytical chemistry. An analyte is kept in an electrochemical cell, and the voltage flowing through it is calculated. 

  • The interchange in the analyte and the energy, in the form of heat, is learned in the discipline of analytical chemistry, popular as calorimetry. A calorimeter is an apparatus involved, to measure the temperature of a chemical reaction. 

Biological calculations are also done with the help of this particular field of chemistry. This is familiar to bio-analytical chemistry.

Branches of Analytical Chemistry

There are two sub-branches under analytical chemistry. They are qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. They give the primary support at many labs of analytical chemistry. We will now discuss them in detail. 

Quantitative Analysis

It is the technique that involves the process of the determination of the absolute or relative amount. That is regarding the mixture of one or more matters that exist in a sample or blend.

Suppose chemists have a specimen of an unknown substance. They first have the 'qualitative' techniques to know the types of compounds. Then they go for the quantitative methods. Through the experiment, they come to the point where they can measure the proper amount or the quantity of the compound. Only this much compound is there in a particular sample. 

Gravimetric Analysis and Volumetric Analysis are among the parts of Quantitative experimental methods.

Qualitative Analysis

To know the standard or the feature of a substance, Qualitative experiments are conducted. It is the technique that decides the quality of a particular blend, irrespective of its amount or concentration. It does not calculate the amount of a matter. It only weighs the quality of it. If you observe a chemical reaction, you can have an idea about it. What needs to be noticed is whether the substance is changing its colour or not.

Chemical tests and flame tests are widely used techniques of Qualitative analysis. A salt analysis is often done through these methods. The cation and anion recognition of inorganic salts are part of it.

Importance of Analytical Chemistry in Different Fields

Analytical chemistry is part of the syllabus in almost every school and college. But it is applied in pharmaceutical industries, food factories, chemical fields, agricultural investigations and in scientific laboratories. The apparatus involved in it is much costly. So it is challenging to be at home.

Applications of Analytical Chemistry

Most important applications of this field of chemistry are noted hereunder:

  • The expiry dates of medicines are decided with the help of analytical chemistry analysis.

  • It is employed to know the existence of contamination in drugs.

  • This can examine the soil. It helped to know the exact mixture of minerals and nutrients that are needed to grow plants.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Role of Analytical Chemistry?

Analytical chemistry encourages and involves the applications of various scientific apparatus. It uses classical methods too. Both the traditional and modern methods are widely used in separation, identification and quantification of matters. These methods of analytical chemistry are able to conduct a whole experiment. Sometimes they are combined also, to get the result. Frequently the same tools are employed for separation, recognition and quantification.

2. How Does Analytic Chemistry Help to Grow Agriculture?

Analytical chemistry left an important landmark in the study of agriculture. Though, in recent times, the aim and the benefits change their characters. The conducted analysis on fields, assures the reliability of the goods produced. They tested the remainder of the pesticides, biocides and fertilizers, especially of rice, pulses and wheat. So the people could get safe eatables.