Anabolism

Anabolism Definition

Anabolism defines the set of biochemical reactions that construct molecules from smaller components. Anabolic results are endergonic, meaning they require an input of energy to progress and aren’t spontaneous. Anabolic and catabolic reactions are a couple with catabolism providing the energy for anabolism. The hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) powers many anabolic processes. In general, condensation and reduction reactions are the mechanisms behind anabolism.


Anabolic reactions require energy. The result where ATP changes to ADP supplies energy for this metabolism. Cells can combine anabolic reactions with catabolic reactions that release energy to make an efficient energy cycle. The catabolic reactions transform chemical fuels into cellular energy, which is then used to initiate the energy-requiring anabolic responses. ATP, a high energy molecule, couple’s anabolism by the release of free energy. This energy does not come through the breakage of phosphate bonds; instead, it is releasing from the hydration of the phosphate group.


(image will be uploaded soon)


Anabolism and Catabolism

Anabolism definition in biology is often viewed as a group of metabolic processes during which the synthesis of complex molecules is initiated by energy released through catabolism. These complex molecules are produced through a scientific method from small and straightforward precursors. This reaction can begin with simple precursors of molecules. It also ends with reasonably complex products like sugar, specific lipids, or even DNA. It has a particularly compact body. The increased complexity of the products of anabolic reactions also means they are more energy-rich than their simple precursors.


Anabolic reactions constitute different processes. That is a relatively few types of raw materials used to synthesize a wide variety of end products, increasing cellular size, complexity, or both. Anabolic processes are liable for cell differentiation and increases in body size. Bone mineralization and muscle mass are attributed to these processes. These processes produce proteins, peptides, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids. Anabolism comprises the living cells like membranes and chromosomes, as specialized products of specific sorts of cells, like enzymes, antibodies, hormones, and neurotransmitters.


Anabolism Examples

Anabolic reactions are those that build complex molecules from simple ones. Cells use these processes to make polymers, grow tissue, and repair damage. For example:

Glycerol Reacts with Fatty Acids to Make Lipids:

CH2OHCH(OH)CH2OH + C17H35COOH → CH2OHCH(OH)CH2OOCC17H35 


Simple Sugars Combine to Form Disaccharides and Water:

C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 → C12H22O11 + H2O


Amino Acids Join Together to Form Dipeptides:

NH2CHRCOOH + NH2CHRCOOH → NH2CHRCONHCHRCOOH + H2


Carbon Dioxide and Water React to Form Glucose and Oxygen in Photosynthesis:

6CO2 + 6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2


Anabolic hormones stimulate anabolic processes. Examples of anabolic hormones include insulin, which promotes glucose absorption, and anabolic steroids, which stimulate muscle growth. Anabolic exercise is anaerobic exercise, such as weightlifting, which also builds muscle strength and mass.


Functions of anabolism

Anabolic processes build organs and tissues. These processes produce growth and differentiation of cells.  It also creates an increase in body size, a process that involves the synthesis of complex molecules. Examples of anabolic processes include the expansion and mineralization of bone and increases in muscle mass.


Anabolic Hormones

Endocrinologists have traditionally classified hormones as anabolic or catabolic, counting on which a part of metabolism they stimulate. The typical anabolic hormones are the anabolic steroids, which stimulate protein synthesis and muscle growth.


Photosynthetic carbohydrate synthesis

This process in plants creates certain bacteria that produces glucose, cellulose, starch, lipids, and proteins from CO2. It uses the energy produced from the light-driven reactions of photosynthesis and creates the precursors to those large molecules via carbon assimilation within the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle.

(image will be uploaded soon)

  • Amino Acid Biosynthesis

All amino acids are formed from intermediates within the catabolic processes of glycolysis: the citric acid cycle, or the pentose phosphate pathway. Glycolysis, glucose 6-phosphate is a precursor for histidine; 3-phosphoglycerate is a precursor for glycine and cysteine; phosphoryl pyruvate, combined with the 3-phosphoglycerate-derivative erythrose 4-phosphate, forms tryptophan, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Pyruvate is a precursor for alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine. From the acid cycle, α-ketoglutarate is converted into glutamate and subsequently glutamine, proline, and arginine; and oxaloacetate is converted into aspartate and subsequently asparagine, methionine, threonine, and lysine.

  • Glycogen Storage

During periods of high blood sugar, glucose 6-phosphate from glycolysis is diverted to the glycogen-storing pathway. It is changed to glucose-1-phosphate by phosphoglucomutase and then to UDP-glucose by UTP--glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. Glycogen synthase adds this UDP-glucose to a glycogen chain.

  • Gluconeogenesis

Glucagon is traditionally a catabolic hormone but also stimulates the anabolic process of gluconeogenesis by the liver, and to a lesser extent the kidney cortex and intestines, during starvation to prevent low blood sugar. It is the process of converting pyruvate into glucose.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is Anabolism?

Anabolism is the body process by which utilizes the energy released by catabolism to synthesize molecules. These complex molecules are then used to make cellular structures that are formed from small and straightforward precursors that act as building blocks.


There are three primary stages of anabolism.

Stage 1 involves the production of precursors like amino acids, monosaccharides, isoprenoids, and nucleotides.


Stage 2 involves activation of these precursors into reactive forms using energy from ATP.


Stage 3 involves the assembly of these precursors into complex molecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids.

2. What are the Sources of Energy for Anabolic Processes?

Different species of organisms depend on various sources of energy. Autotrophs such as plants can construct the complex organic molecules in cells such as polysaccharides and proteins from simple molecules like carbon dioxide and water using sunlight as energy.


Heterotrophs require a source of more complex substances, such as monosaccharides and amino acids, to produce these complex molecules. They both obtain energy from light. For example, while chemoautotrophs and chemoheterotrophs derive power from inorganic oxidation reactions.