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English Grammar Class 1 Vowels and Consonants - PDF

Last updated date: 18th May 2024
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Vowels and consonants shape the way you speak a word in English. Knowing the correct placement of these two types of letters makes an enormous difference in how you pronounce a word. It is easy to remember that the English alphabets a, e, i, and u are called vowels, and the rest are consonants, but it is tricky to understand why this concept is so essential in how words come out of your mouth.

Vowels and consonants for Class 1 are important topics in developing the English language for little ones. The definition of vowels and consonants for Class 1, along with the difference and some exceptions, is something even adults get confused about. For example, even though the word “honest” does not start with a vowel, we still treat it as a vowel since its pronunciation starts with a vowel which is “o”. 

So, let us find out more about what you will learn in the chapter about vowels and consonants in English grammar.

English Grammar for Class 1 Consonants and Vowels Download Free PDF

In today’s lesson, we will discuss Consonants and Vowels. A consonant is any speaking sound that is not a vowel. It also refers to the alphabetic letters that stand in for certain sounds; consonants include Z, B, T, G, and H.

Introduction to Grammar

Introduction to Grammar

  • There are 26 letters in the English alphabet. Out of 26 five are Vowels.  And Consonants make up the remaining 21 letters.

  • Vowels: A, E, I, O, U

  • Vowel-Containing Words: Cow, Pencil, Umbrella, Book, etc.

  • Consonants: B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Y, Z

  • Examples: Consonants present in the word Bag are ‘B’ and ‘g’. Similarly in the word Notebook, ‘N’, ‘t’, ‘b’, and ‘k’ are consonants.

Activity: You notice that when you say “AAA”, your mouth is open. There! You just uttered a vowel. A vowel is a letter, standing in for an open sound.

  • The English language has six vowels: a, e, i o, u, and occasionally y. 

  • Y can function as a consonant or a vowel depending on the context, as in the word story or yes. Vowels are a representation of open, frictionless vocal sounds.

  • The Latin phrase little vocalis, or "vocal letter," from the root word vox, or "voice," is the source of the Old French voyeur, from which the word vowel is derived. 




  • An English consonant is a letter (sound) that is not a vowel.

  • There are 21 consonants in the English language.

  • Examples: In the word Blanket, the letters ‘B’, ‘l’, ‘n’, ‘k’, and ‘t’ are consonants while ‘a’, and ‘e’ are vowels.

A word is made up of vowels and consonants, while a sentence is made up of a group of words.

The following are a few examples of a sentence:

  • Don’t freeze the fresh fruit.

  • The big plane flew at night.

  • I saw a rainbow.

  • I want a new pencil.

  • The dogs are barking.





  • vowel “A”

short sound: Apple, Cat

long sound: Cake, Bake

  • vowel “E” 

Short sound: Jet, net

Long sound: feet, leaf

  • Vowel “I”

Short sound: fish, pit

Long sound: kite, idle

  • Vowel “o”

Short sound: clock, ought

Long sound: rope, coke

  • vowel “U”

Short sound: sun

Long sound: cute, umbrella

Consonants and Vowels Differences 

Consonants and Vowels

Consonants and Vowels



Basic speech sounds like vowels are produced by an open vocal tract.

The alphabet contains Five vowel letters.

Basic speech sounds known as consonants are produced when the vocal folds are partially or completely closed.

The alphabet consists of Twenty-one consonant letters.

In English, there are around Twenty distinct vowel sounds.

In English, there are roughly Twenty-four consonant sounds.

Syllables are composed primarily of vowels

A vowel and a consonant must be joined to produce a syllable.

Increase your sonority.

Increase your sonority, variance in speech etc.

The voice comes out when we recite vowel, hence it is voiced

Voiced or unvoiced, the sound doesn’t comes all the time, no stress on variable all the time.

Difficult Word Meanings:






a word that contains only one vowel sound.

Jolly phonics

when we speak alphabets the sound that comes 


all the letters except vowels are consonants.


Way to portray


In this chapter, we have learned about vowels and consonants. There are twenty-six alphabets in the English language and out of 26 five are vowels and the remaining 21 are consonants. Consonants carry the intention and the message, while vowels transmit the passion. Most people either have more significant vowels or more significant consonants. However, in order to properly use the vowels and consonants, you must exercise the tongue's muscles. Speech is simpler to hear when it is clear, crisp, and comprehensible thanks to consonant sounds. Vowels are more difficult to learn than consonants. Each consonant sound is typically pronounced only once. Vowels play a significant role in our language. We wouldn't be able to speak or sing without them. They are crucial for acquiring English reading and writing skills.

Practice Questions

Identify the given vowel words.

  1. Fish

  2. Eyes

  3. Apple

Identify the given consonant words.

  1. Sitting

  2. Stopped

  3. Drop


  1. The vowel in the word Fish is “ i”.

  2. The vowel in the word Eyes is “e”.

  3. The vowels in the word Apple are  “a”, “e”.

  4. The consonants in the word Sitting are “s”, “t”, “n”, “g”.

  5. The consonants in the word Stopped are “s”, “t”, “p”, “d”.

  6. The consonants in the word Drop are “d”, “r”, “p”.

Importance of Learning Vowels and Consonants for Class 1

The way we pronounce words depends greatly on our understanding of the concept of vowels and consonants.

  • Consonants and vowels are an integral part of the English language. In our daily lives, we constantly pronounce words that are a combination of vowels and consonants; hence, it is vital to know their difference.

  • The vowels are often pronounced differently in different words in the English language, which could cause confusion, especially for kids. They will not have problems getting proper pronunciations if they get their basics right.

  • By learning the use of vowels in English grammar, kids also enhance their vocabulary and improve their communication skills.

  • Excellent speaking skills in the English language can only be achieved if you have a proper understanding of vowels and consonants.

Examples of Vowels and Consonants in English Grammar Class 1

In the chapter on consonants and vowels for Class 1, students will get to practise the following types of exercises:

  • Fill in the blanks with the proper vowel to form meaningful words:

    • C_w.

    • B_ll.

    • K_te.

    • _l_ph_nt.

    • G_rl.

    • B_y.

  • Find the consonants in the following words:

    • School

    • Friday

    • May

    • Flag

    • Table

    • Chair

  • Fill in the blanks with appropriate consonants to form meaningful words:

    • Ca_el.

    • Ta_le.

    • Co_k.

    • _ul_.

    • _row.

  • From the below word puzzle, find out a minimum of two words that have the same vowel sound of each of the vowels a, e, i, o, u.

























































  • Use long vowel words to complete the following words:

    • F_ _ t

    • R _ _ t.

    • T _ _ th.

    • G _ _ se.

    • B _ _ k.

    • F _ _ l.

  • Mention the number of vowels in each word listed below:

    • Cheerful

    • Undo

    • Beware

    • Mango

    • Sweet 

Important Facts about Vowels and Consonants in English Grammar

  • There are 26 letters in the English alphabet system out of which only five are vowels, i.e., a, e, i, o, u.

  • Consonants and vowels pair to produce different sounds.

  • Vowels are different from consonants as they are pronounced with our mouths open. For example, when we pronounce the letter “e”, only the mouth opens but our lips, tongue, and teeth do not move.

  • Consonants are pronounced by moving different parts of our mouths such as lips, teeth, or tongue. For instance, when we pronounce the letter “l”, we have to move our lips to touch our palate.

  • The letter Y can sometimes be counted as a vowel for example in words like sky, lovely, thyme, etc.

  • Every vowel has more than one sound or it can be silent without any sound.

  • The speech sound of vowels is made by humans without constricting the flow of air from the lungs.

  • Consonants are formed by constricting the flow of air by our teeth, tongue, or lips.

Grab Your Free Copy of Consonant and Vowel Words for Class 1

If you are looking to score well in your exams, then grab the free PDF of the definition of vowels and consonants for Class 1 prepared by Vedantu’s expert team.

  • The PDF contains easy and simple explanations of the vowels and consonants concept along with many exercises in varied forms which helps students grasp the concept smoothly and be stress-free during their exams.

  • You can download the PDF on your device so that you can access it from anywhere without even an internet connection.

  • If you want to quickly revise the chapter right before your exam, the PDF is also available in a printable format to give you ease of access.

Sometimes, students find difficulty in understanding consonants and vowels and where to use them properly. Top educators of the Vedantu have tried to eliminate the confusion among Class 1 students by giving proper explanation and examples with answers to ensure students have a clear understanding of when and where to use vowels and consonants and the exceptions to the rules.

FAQs on English Grammar Class 1 Vowels and Consonants - PDF

1. What are the different types of vowel sounds?

There are two different types of vowel sounds as described below:

  • Monophthongs - Monophthongs have a single sound and are also called pure vowels. An example of this type of vowel sound is the word "feet" where there is a single vowel sound in a syllable.

  • Diphthongs - When two vowels are either joined or paired in order, it creates a diphthongs type of vowel sound. This vowel sound starts as a single vowel sound and then blends into another. For example, when you say the word "away", you start with an "a" vowel sound and then go to the long I sound.

2. What are long and short vowel sounds?

If a vowel makes the sound of a specific letter, then it is called a short sound vowel. On the other hand, if the vowel sounds like the name of the letter, then it falls in the long vowel sound category. For example, the vowel “a” in the word “bat” and the vowel “e” in the word “pet” are short vowel sounds whereas the vowels “a” in “fate” and “ea” in “Wheat” are long vowel sounds.

3. When is the letter "y" used as a vowel, and when is it used as a consonant?

If, in a word, the letter "y" blocks the airflow out of your mouth, then it is a consonant, for example, "yellow", "yam", etc. When the letter "y" in a word does not block the airflow, it is treated as a vowel, for instance, sky, fry, etc.