Jawahar Lal Nehru was an Indian independence fighter and the first prime minister of India. He was considered as a central warrior in Indian Politics before independence as well as after independence. He was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad and served the nation from 1947 until his death in 1964. The birthplace of Jawahar Lal Nehru is Prayagraj which is in Allahabad. Due to his association with the Kashmiri Pandit community, he was also known as Pandit Nehru, while the Indian kids referred to them as Chacha Nehru. Jawahar Lal Nehru’s birthday is widely celebrated as Children’s day. His father’s name is Motilal Nehru who served as Indian Prime minister in 1919 and 1928. His mother’s name is Swarup Rani Thussu and she was the second wife of Motilal. Jawahar Lal Nehru had 2 sisters and he was the eldest among all. Vijay Laxmi was the eldest sister who later became the President of the United Nations General Assembly. And the youngest sister Krishna Hutheesing was a noted writer and authored several books on her brother. Jawahar Lal Nehru was married to Kamala Nehru who was born in 1899.
Childhood and Early Age:
He grew up in a privileged atmosphere in a rich home. His father trained him by private governesses and tutors. Nehru became interested in science and theosophy under the influence of Ferdinand T. Brooks' tutelage. At the age of thirteen, family friend Annie Besant subsequently introduced him to the Theosophical Society. For nearly three years Brooks was with me and in some ways, he influenced me greatly.
Jawahar Lal Nehru’s Education:
In October 1907, Nehru visited Trinity College, Cambridge, and graduated with an honours degree in science in 1910. He also studied politics, economics, history, and literature with little interest during this time. Most of his political and financial philosophy was molded by the writings of Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells, John Maynard Keynes, Bertrand Russell, Lowes Dickinson, and Meredith Townsend.
After completing his degree in 1910, Nehru moved to London and studied law at the Inner Temple Inn. During this period, including Beatrice Webb, he continued researching the Fabian Society scholars. He was called to the Bar in 1912.
Early Struggle for Independence (1912 - 1938)
During his time in Britain as a student and a barrister, Nehru developed an interest in Indian politics. Nehru attended an annual session of the Indian National Congress in Patna within months of his return to India in 1912. In 1912, Congress was the party of progressives and elites, and he was disconcerted by what he saw as "very much an English-knowing upper-class affair." Nehru had reservations about Congress' efficacy but decided to work for the party to support the Indian civil rights movement led in South Africa by Mahatma Gandhi, raising funds for the movement in 1913. Later, in the British colonies, he protested against indentured labour and other such injustice faced by Indians.
Nehru's first significant national participation came at the beginning of the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920. Nehru was arrested in 1921 on charges of anti-government activities Nehru remained loyal to Gandhi in the rift that developed within the Congress following the sudden closure of the Non-Cooperation movement after the Chauri Chaura incident and did not join the Swaraj Party formed by his father Motilal Nehru and CR Das.
Salt Satyagraha Success:
The Salt Satyagraha succeeded in attracting the world's attention. Increasingly, Indian, British, and world views started to accept the validity of the Congress party's independence claims. Nehru found the high-water mark of his involvement with Gandhi to be the salt satyagraha and thought that its enduring significance was in transforming Indian attitudes.
Jawahar Lal Nehru The First Prime Minister of India:
Nehru served for 18 years as prime minister, first as temporary prime minister, and then as prime minister of the Republic of India from 1950.
In the 1946 elections Congress captured a majority of seats in the assembly and, with Nehru as the prime minister, led the provisional government. On 15 August 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru was sworn in as the first Prime Minister of Free India. On 15 August, he took office because the Prime Minister of India and gave his inaugural entitled "Tryst with Destiny".
Hindu Marriage Law and Role of Jawahar Lal Nehru:
Several laws passed such as the Hindu Code law in the 1950s that sought to codify and amend Hindu personal law in India. After India's independence in 1947, this codification and change, a process initiated by the British Raj, was completed by the Indian National Congress government headed by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. The object of the Hindu Code Bill was to provide a civil code instead of a body of personal Hindu law, which had been amended only to a limited extent by the British authorities. On 9 April 1948, the bill was submitted to the Constituent Assembly, but it created a lot of uproars and was subsequently broken down to three more specialized bills that came before the 1952-7 term of the Lok Sabha. The Hindu Marriage Bill abolished polygamy and included restrictions on inter-caste marriages and divorce procedures; the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Bill had the adoption of girls as its main thrust, which had been little practiced until then; the Hindu Succession Bill put daughters on the same footing as widows and sons when it came to family property inheritance.
1952 Elections and Jawahar Lal Nehru:
Following the constitution's ratification on 26 November 1949, the Constituent Assembly, before new elections, proceeded to serve as the provisional parliament. The interim cabinet of Nehru was composed of 15 representatives from different communities and parties. Different cabinet members resigned from their positions and formed their parties to contest the elections. Nehru was also elected the president of Congress for 1951 and 1952 while being the PM. In the election, the Congress party under the leadership of Nehru won significant majorities at both state and national level, despite a large number of parties competing.
Death of Jawahar Lal Nehru:
After 1962, Nehru's health started to decline slowly, and he spent months recovering in Kashmir until 1963. He felt very relaxed after his return from Dehradun on 26 May 1964 and went to bed, as usual, he had a restful night after he returned from the bathroom, Nehru complained of back pain. He talked to the doctors who were attending him for a short time, and Nehru collapsed almost instantly. Before he died, he remained unconscious. His death was registered to Lok Sabha on 27 May 1964 (the same day) the cause of death is suspected to be a heart attack. The body of Jawaharlal Nehru was put for public viewing on the Indian national Tri-colour flag. Nehru was cremated on 28 May at Shantivan on the banks of the Yamuna by Hindu rituals, witnessed by 1.5 million mourners flocking to the streets of Delhi and the cremation grounds.