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Lakhmir Singh Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 17 Garbage In Garbage Out - PDF

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Last updated date: 21st Apr 2024
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Download Class 6 Science Chapter 17 Garbage In Garbage Out Lakhmir Singh Solutions Free PDF

One of the biggest challenges of the modern world is garbage or waste management. Class 6 Science Chapter 17 introduces the concept of waste management to students. In this chapter, they will learn how waste is managed in modern establishments and why waste management is important.


To make this chapter easier to understand, refer to the Garbage In Garbage Out Class 6 PDF Lakhmir Singh notes prepared by the subject experts at Vedantu. These notes have been designed to offer the simplest explanation of the concepts of waste management and the answers to all the exercise questions of this chapter.

Access Lakhmir Singh Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 16 Garbage In, Garbage Out

Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. What types of worms are used for vermicomposting?

Ans: Redworms are used for vermicomposting.


2. What type of garbage is collected in 

  1.  blue dustbins?

  2. green dustbins?

Ans: (a) Blue Dustbins are used to collect metal, cardboard, plastics, and food tins.

(b) Green dustbins are used to collect kitchen wastes, vegetable peelings, meat, animal wastes, and bones.


3. What type of garbage is not converted into compost by the redworms?

Ans: The garbage which includes glass, plastics, and metal objects can not be converted into compost by the redworms.


4. Name the structure present in redworms that helps them in grinding the food which they eat.

Ans: The structure present in redworms that helps them in grinding the food which they eat is Gizzard.


5. Name two waste materials that can be recycled.

Ans: The two waste materials that can be recycled are metals and paper.


6. What name is given to the manure prepared by the action of redworms on kitchen wastes?

Ans: Vermicompost is the name of the manure prepared by the action of redworms on kitchen wastes.


7. Name a good method for the disposal of household garbage such as fruit and vegetable peels, left-over cooked food, and fallen leaves.

Ans: Compositing is a good method for the disposal of household garbage such as fruit and vegetable peels, left-over cooked food, and fallen leaves.


8. Which of the following are used in vermicomposting? Earthworms, Redworms, Roundworms, Flatworms

Ans: Redworms are used in vermicomposting.


9. What are the two colours of the dustbins provided by the Municipality in some cities to collect different kinds of garbage?

Ans: Green and Blue are the two colours of the dustbins provided by the Municipality in some cities to collect different kinds of garbage.


10. Name two components of garbage that can rot when buried in soil and two which cannot.

Ans: The two components of garbage that can rot when buried in the soil are fruit, vegetable peels, and fallen leaves, and plastic bags, and glass bottles are two components of garbage that cannot rot when buried. 


11. What do you think is the best way to dispose of left-over fook cooked at home?

Ans: The best way to dispose of leftover food cooked at home is Composting.


12. Fill in the following blanks with suitable words:

  1.  Vermicomposting uses ............... to turn kitchen wastes into very high-quality manure.

  2.  All the packaging materials are useless and go out as ...............

Ans: (a) Vermicomposting uses redworms to turn kitchen wastes into very high-quality manure.

Vermicomposting is the process of converting kitchen wastes into compost by the redworms.

(b)All the packaging materials are useless and go out as garbage.

Waste materials, mainly household wastes are called garbage. Garbage can be anything such as fruits and vegetable peels, glass and metal articles, plastic bags, etc.


Short Answer Type Questions

13. Which of the following waste materials present in household garbage can rot when buried in the ground and which cannot?

Polythene bag, Paper bag, Vegetable peels, Aluminum foil, Broken glass, and Tea-leaves.

Ans: The waste materials present in household garbage that can rot when buried in the ground are vegetable peels and tea leaves and those that do not rot are polythene bags, paper bags, aluminium foil, and broken glass.

There are two types of waste:

Biodegradable wastes: The wastes which can rot when buried in the ground.

Non-Biodegradable wastes: The wastes which do not rot when buried in the ground.


14. Explain why it is better to use compost (or vermicompost) instead of chemical fertilizers.

Ans: It is better to use compost (or vermicompost) instead of chemical fertilizer because making compost is easy and it does not harm the soil in any way.

Vermicomposts are those which are made by converting kitchen wastes with the help of red worms. Making Vermicompost is very easy whereas chemical fertilizers are very expensive. So it saves money.

The vermicompost is natural manure and hence does not harm the soil whereas man-made chemical fertilizers harm the soil in the long run.


15. What are the various kinds of wastes (or garbage) which can be used for making vermicompost?

Ans: The various kinds of wastes (or garbage) which can be used for making vermicompost are animal and plant wastes.

Vermicompost is made from the excretes of redworms.

  • Vermicompost is made from kitchen waste using redworms.

  • Redworms can easily eat plant and animal wastes and so they are used to make vermicompost.


16. Can we add plastic-coated paper (laminated paper) to the vermicomposting pit? Give a reason for your answer.

Ans: Plastic-coated paper (laminated paper) cannot be added to the vermicomposting pit because of its non-biodegradable nature.

  • The plastic-coated paper would not be eaten by the redworms easily and hence would not be converted to compost.

  • A plastic-coated paper is a non-biodegradable waste.

  • Non-biodegradable waste cannot be disposed of safely when they turn useless and old.


17. Why are some powdered egg-shells (or sea shells) added to the food of redworms in the compost pit?

Ans: Some powdered eggshells are added to the food of redworms in the compost pit to help them grind their food in the gizzard.

Redworms are used to convert kitchen waste into compost.

  • Redworms do not have teeth; instead of that, they have a structure in their body known as a Gizzard.

  • These powdered egg shells are added to the food of redworms in the compost pit.

  • The hard particles of these eggshells or sea shells help the redworms in grinding their food in the gizzard.

  • The redworms can eat food equal to their weight daily.


18. Why should kitchen wastes containing salt, pickles, oil, vinegar, milk, and meat preparations not be added as food for redworms in the compost pit?

Ans: The kitchen wastes containing salt, pickles, oil, vinegar, milk, and meat preparations should not be added as food for redworms in the compost pit because it leads to the growth of some disease-causing microorganisms. So we must make sure that these items of kitchen waste are not added to the pit as this will affect the quality of manure.


19. If you and your friends are given the choice of eating food in a plastic plate or a banana leaf platter at a party, which one would you prefer and why?

Ans: I would prefer a banana leaf plate over a plastic plate as the banana plates would be easily disposed of, being a plant material. The plastic plates are nonbiodegradable waste and so cannot be easily disposed of after they become old and useless. On the other hand, the disposal of banana leaf plates will become compost with the use of red worms.


20. State one difference between composting and vermicomposting. What are the advantages of vermicomposting?

Ans: Vermicomposting is different as it uses redworms whereas composting uses microorganisms. Vermicomposting makes good quality manure. Composting is the process of converting kitchen wastes into compost by the microorganisms present in the soil such as bacteria and fungi. While Vermicomposting is the process of converting kitchen wastes into compost by the redworms.

The advantages of vermicomposting are:

  • The compost that is made from vermicomposting is of very high quality as compared to traditional composting.

  • Vermicompost is much better manure than ordinary compost for growing plants.



21. What are redworms? With which process of garbage disposal are the redworms associated?

Ans: Redworms are a type of earthworm. Vermicomposting is the process with which the redworms are associated. The vermicompost is made from the excretes of the redworms to make good quality manure. Vermicomposting is the process in which redworms are associated to convert kitchen wastes into compost.


22. What is meant by biodegradable garbage and non-biodegradable garbage? Give two examples of each type of garbage.

Ans: Biodegradable garbage: The part of garbage that can rot when buried into the soil and forms harmless substances is called biodegradable garbage. They are often referred to as organic wastes. For Example Fruit and vegetable peels.

Non-Biodegradable garbage: The part of garbage that does not rot when buried into the soil and also gives poisonous gasses when buried is called non-biodegradable garbage. For Example plastic bags, glass bottles, and metal articles. 


23. What can we do to reduce the generation of garbage and get rid of garbage?

Ans: We can reduce the generation of garbage by making use of reusable items. And the methods to get rid of garbage are Recycling, Reuse, Composting, Vermicomposting, and Landfill.

To reduce the generation of garbage-

  • We should use reusable bottles/cups, and reusable grocery bags.

  • We should purchase wisely and should buy products with the least packaging.

  • We should recycle the items.

  • We should give old clothes and other reusable things to others who can use them.


24. Is it possible to reduce the problems relating to the disposal of garbage? Discuss.

Ans: 

Yes, we can reduce all the problems related to the disposal of garbage by reducing, reusing, recycling, and making use of kitchen waste to convert it into compost.

It can be done in the following ways:

  • By reducing the use of packaged products.

  • By minimizing the use of plastic bags and replacing it with cloth bags.

  • By utilizing biodegradable wastes such as kitchen wastes.

  • By recycling the materials such as paper, metals, and some recyclable plastic materials.


25. Give two advantages of recycling old newspapers.

Ans: 

Here are the two advantages of recycling old newspapers are :

  • Recycling paper(old newspapers) saves energy, water 

  • It helps in reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Recycled products are cost-effective.


Long Answer Type Questions

26. What is garbage? Explain with examples. What will happen if garbage is not removed from our homes and surroundings regularly?

Ans: Garbage: Waste materials mainly household wastes are called garbage.

Garbage can be anything such as fruits and vegetable peels, leftover foods, glass and metal articles, plastic bags, etc.

If Garbage is not removed from our homes and surroundings regularly then-

  • Garbage will make our homes and surroundings dirty.

  • Some of the garbage will rot and give off a bad smell.

  • The rotting garbage will then start breeding grounds for the disease-causing organisms.

  • Due to flies and other insects there will be possibility of spead of community disease.

  • It may cause air pollution and that can lead to the severe heart related problems.


27. What is meant by 

  1.  composting? 

  2. Vermicomposting?

Which of them is better and why?

Ans: 

  1.  Composting: Composting is the process of converting all kitchen wastes, plant wastes, and animal wastes into compost using the microorganisms like bacteria and fungi present in the soil.

  2.  Vermicomposting: Vermicomposting is the process of converting all kitchen wastes, plant wastes, and animal wastes into compost with the help of various species of worms such as red worms, white worms and other earthworms. The end product of matter composed by earthworm is known as vermicompost. Vermicomposting is better than compositing because it produces better manure than ordinary composting. And vermicompost is of higher quality and it is also good for plant growth.


28. What is meant by recycling ? Describe an activity to recycle paper at home or school.

Ans: Recycling is the process of collecting and separating used and discarded items made up of paper, glass, metals, plastics, etc., and sending them to their respective industries for making fresh paper, glass, metal, and plastic objects.

Activity to recycle paper at home or School:

To create a new handmade paper follow the following steps:

  • Take some old newspapers or magazines and tear them into small pieces.

  • Now, put the pieces into the tub and pour some water into the tub.

  •  Keep the pieces of paper in water for a full day.

  • Make a thick paste of paper by thumping it.

  • Now add some colors to it of your choice.

Your handmade paper is ready.


29. Name the various methods of garbage disposal. Describe the landfill method of getting rid of garbage in a city.

Ans: Various methods of waste disposal are reducing, recycling, reusing also known as 3 R's and composting, landfilling, biogas generation, and incineration. 

A landfill is defined as a low-lying area of ground where the collected garbage from the city is dumped. The process of landfill is mainly done by trucks. This type of waste disposal is done if the waste can not be converted into compost and can not be recycled or reused. A layer of soil is added to each layer of waste. However, this area is usually declared unfit for construction and it is only taken in the use of playgrounds and parks.


30. Explain how plastics are a boon as well as a curse. What can we do to minimize the overuse of plastics?

Ans:  Items made of plastics are used by us every day. Plastic can be considered a boon as we all use plastic items everywhere and cannot imagine our life without plastics. Plastic is considered a curse because it cannot be disposed of easily.

We can minimize the use of plastic :

  • by reducing, recycling, and reusing items. 

  • Replacing plastic carry bags with cloth bags.

  • Promote traditional toys instead of plastic toys.

Plastic items example: Water bottles, Plastics bags, buckets, chairs, pens, combs, etc. The list of items that are made up of plastics is huge. Life cannot be imagined without plastic. So, it is a boon for us. On the other hand, Plastics become a curse for us as we can not dispose of the wastes properly made up of plastics. As all types of plastics cannot be recycled and they would not rot when buried in the soil. Also, the burning of plastics produces harmful gasses.


Multiple Choice Questions

31. Which of the following materials can be recycled?

  1.  Glass

  2.  Paper

  3.  Stone

  4.  Wood

  1.  A and B

  2.  B and C

  3. C and D

  4.  A and D

Ans: The correct answer is Option a. A and B.

Glass and Paper can be recycled through various processes to form a new item of glass and a new piece of paper from the old.


32. Which of the following cannot be recycled?

  1.  book

  2.  wooden stool

  3.  mirror

  4.  tin can

Ans: The correct option is b. Wooden stool.

Wooden stool i.e. wood cannot be recycled. Book i.e. Paper,  tin can i.e. metal, and mirrors i.e. glass materials can be recycled.


33. After recycling, newspaper can be made into:

  1.  bricks

  2.  wooden plank

  3.  cardboard

  4.  cloth

Ans: The correct option is c. cardboard. 

The old newspaper can be recycled and can be made into use to make new objects. After recycling, newspapers can be made into the cardboard.


34. We should keep refuse (garbage) in plastic bags for disposal. This is to:

  1.  avoid unpleasant smell

  2.  make the refuse collector's job easier

  3.  prevent the refuse collectors from breaking the bins

  4.  prevent the mosquito from laying eggs

  1.  A and D

  2.  A and B

  3.  B and C

  4.  A and C

Ans: (option b) 

Refuse(Garbage) should be kept in plastic bags for clean disposal to avoid unpleasant smells and make it easy for the refuse collector to do his job.


35. Which of the following are used for vermicomposting?

  1.  earthworms

  2.  redworms

  3.  blueworms

  4.  roundworms

Ans: (option b) 

Vermicomposting is a process that makes use of red worms to convert kitchen waste into compost.


36. Which of the following wastes (or garbage) cannot be added in the process of making vermicompost?

  1.  laminated paper

  2.  newspaper

  3.  cardboard

  4.  cow dung

Ans: (option a)

Vermicomposting is the conversion of kitchen waste into compost using redworms.

As Laminated paper is chemically made it becomes difficult to decompose and took a long time.


37. The structure present in redworms which helps them in grinding the food which they eat is known as:

  1.  blizzard

  2.  lizard

  3.  gizzard

  4.  trigger

Ans: (Option c) 

Redworms grind the food. The structure present in redworms to grind the food which they eat is known as Gizzard.


38. The color of dustbins in which biodegradable garbage is collected is :

  1.  red

  2.  blue

  3. orange

  4.  green

Ans: (Option d) 

Green color dustbins are used to collect biodegradable garbage. There are different colored dustbins to collect different types of waste.


39. What is the color of the dustbins used for collecting the non-biodegradable garbage?

  1.  yellow

  2.  green

  3. blue

  4.  black

Ans: (Option c) 

Blue color dustbins are used to collect non-biodegradable garbage. There are different colored dustbins to collect different types of waste.


40. The component of garbage which cannot rot when buried in ground is :

  1.  paper bag

  2.  polythene bag

  3. jute bag

  4.  cotton cloth bag

Ans: (Option b) 

Polythene bags cannot rot when buried in the ground because it is a non-biodegradable waste and Non-Biodegradable types of waste do not rot when buried in the ground.


41. The component of garbage which can rot when buried in the soil is :

  1.  tea leaves

  2.  aluminum foil

  3.  glass bangles

  4.  rusted pipe

Ans: (Option a) 

Tea leaves are a component of garbage that can rot when buried in the soil. Tea Leaves are biodegradable waste and Biodegradable wastes rot when buried in the soil. All other options are types of non-biodegradable waste.


42. Which one of the following is not a method of disposal of garbage?

  1.  composting

  2.  vermicomposting

  3. cycling

  4.  landfill

Ans: (Option c) 

Cycling is not a method of disposal of garbage. The various methods of disposal of garbage are vermicomposting, composting, landfill, recycling, and reuse.


43. The process in which non-useful garbage is burned at high temperature to reduce its volume is called:

  1.  respiration

  2.  incarnation

  3.  incineration

  4.  insemination

Ans: (Option c) 

Incineration is the process in which non-useful garbage is burned at high temperatures to reduce its volume.  To reduce the volume of non-useful wastes to a large extent they can be burned at high temperatures.


44. Which of the following is biodegradable?

  1.  water bottle

  2.  science book

  3.  diamond ring

  4.  window grill

Ans: (option b) 

The science book is biodegradable. The book is made of paper and Papers are examples of biodegradable wastes. All other options are examples of non-biodegradable wastes.


45. One of the following is non-biodegradable. This one is :

  1.  leather belt

  2.  cow dung cakes

  3.  thin gold foil

  4.  thick cardboard sheet

Ans: (Option c) 

The thin gold foil is non-biodegradable. Materials such as plastic, glass, and metals are non-biodegradable materials. All other options are biodegradable materials.


Questions based on Higher Order Thinking Skills

46. X is a very useful material which is part of our daily life in one form or the other. Making of X needs cutting down of forest trees. This material is biodegradable and it can be recycled to make other useful products like cardboard, etc.

  1.  What could material X be ?

  2. Name any three things made of X which are used in our daily life.

Ans: (a)Material X could be Paper. Paper is biodegradable and can be recycled easily to make new things. Paper is made from trees so trees need to be cut down for that.

Paper is used to make newspapers, notebooks, books, etc.

(b) Things that are made of paper and are used in our daily life are as follows:

  • Newspaper

  • Books

  • Notebooks

  • Cardboard

  • Envelopes etc.


47. There are two dustbins A and B of different colors which are installed in a colony for collecting two types of garbage (or waste materials). The wastes like broken glass articles and metal objects are put in dustbin A whereas vegetable peels and left-over food are put in dustbin B.

  1.  What is the color of the dustbin

 (i) A, and 

(ii) B?

  1.  What name is given to the wastes like those in

 (i) dustbin A, and 

(ii) dustbin B?

  1.  Which dustbin contains wastes which can be converted into compost?

  2. Which dustbin contains wastes which can be recycled?

Ans: (a)(i)The color of dustbin A is Blue and 

(ii)the color of dustbin B is Green.

The different colored dustbins are used to collect different types of waste.

Blue dustbins collect plastic items, broken glass articles, and metal objects.

Green dustbins collect leftover food, vegetable peels, and other kitchen waste.

(b)(i)Non-biodegradable wastes are collected in Dustbin A.

Non-Biodegradable wastes are plastic items, glass articles, metal objects, etc.

(ii)Biodegradable wastes are collected in Dustbin B.

Biodegradable wastes are left-over foods, vegetable peels, kitchen wastes, and fallen leaves.

(c)Dustbin B i.e. green colored dustbin contains wastes that can be converted into compost. As Dustbin B collects biodegradable wastes and Biodegradable wastes are used to make compost by using microorganisms or redworms.

(d) Dustbin A i.e. Blue colored dustbin contains wastes that can be recycled. As Dustbin A collects non-biodegradable wastes. And Non-biodegradable wastes do not form compost or decompose when buried in the soil. They can be recycled. For example, broken glass articles and metal objects can be recycled easily.


48. In one method P of the disposal of garbage, the non-useful part of garbage is burnt at a high temperature in a special kind of furnace Q. This reduces a large amount of garbage into a small amount of ash. This ash is then disposed of by dumping it in a low-lying area of ground called R. What are P, Q, and R?

Ans: Method P is incineration, Method Q is an incinerator, and R is landfill.

Incineration:

  • In Incineration the non-useful wastes are burned at very high temperatures in a furnace.

  • The furnace in which these wastes are burned is known as an incinerator.

  • A large amount of garbage is reduced into a small amount of ash.

  • This ash obtained in the end is disposed of in the landfill i.e. in a low-lying area of ground.


49. The redworms can convert kitchen waste into a natural manure called X. When redworms eat rotting kitchen wastes, a structure Y in their body helps in grinding the wastes which they eat as food. The substance Z is usually mixed with the kitchen waste to help the redworms to grind the food inside structure Y. What are X,Y, and Z?

Ans: X is Vermicompost, Y is Gizzard and Z is Powdered eggshells or seashells.

All the above-mentioned terms are associated with vermicompost.

  • The compost that is made from the kitchen wastes using the redworms is called vermicompost which turns out to be natural manure.

  • The redworms do not have teeth, they have a structure in their body called a gizzard which helps them in grinding the wastes they eat as food.

  • The excretes of redworms make up the vermicompost.

  • Powdered eggshells are mixed with the kitchen wastes to help the redworms to grind the food inside their gizzard.


50. Two separate pits A and B are dug in the ground about 30cm deep. Material C is placed in pit A whereas another material D is placed in pit B. Both the pits are then covered with soil. When the pits were dug up after a month, it was found that material C remained as such but material D had 'rot' completely.

  1.  What type of material is 

(i) C,and 

(ii) D?

  1.  Give one example of material 

(i) like C, and 

(ii) like D.

  1. What is responsible for the rotting of material D?

Ans: 

(a)(i)Material C is Non-biodegradable waste.

Non-Biodegradable wastes are those types of wastes that do not rot or decay when they are buried deep inside the soil.

(ii)Material D is a biodegradable waste.

Biodegradable wastes are those types of wastes that rot or decay when they are buried deep inside the soil.

(b)(i)Example of material C i.e. Non-Biodegradable wastes Plastic bags.

(ii)Example of material D i.e. Biodegradable waste is Paper.

(c)The action of microorganisms present in the soil is the reason for the rotting of material D. Biodegradable wastes get rotten up when they are buried in the soil while Non-Biodegradable wastes do not get rot when they are buried in the soil.


Importance of Lakhmir Singh Class 6 Science Chapter 17 Garbage In Garbage Out Solutions

Managing waste is a big concern in modern cities. The more we use advanced commodities and products, the higher the amount of waste we produce. If not properly managed, these waste products will end up dumped near the cities causing health hazards and a disbalance in the ecosystem.


To educate students about the importance of waste management, this chapter explains how waste is managed in towns and cities. It also explains where waste materials are dumped in cities and how diseases spread from them.


It will explain the different kinds of waste that we need to get rid of by using safer methods. One of the biggest threats is the management of hospital waste. It contains used medical instruments, syringes, bottles, etc. Medical waste is quite dangerous for human establishments, animals, and plants.


This chapter will explain how waste is collected and managed in cities and towns. The processes of managing and processing waste will be discussed elaborately in this chapter. Hence, studying Garbage In Garbage Out Class 6 Chapter 17 will make students aware of its importance. They will become good citizens by following the rules mandated to promote waste management to keep our world safe for all organisms.


Benefits of Garbage In Garbage Out Lakhmir Singh Solutions Class 6

  • As mentioned earlier, this chapter is of utmost importance when it comes to environmental science and education. Hence, important questions will come from this chapter in the final exams. To prepare this chapter well, refer to the solutions developed by our experts for all the questions given in the exercises.

  • Refer to these solutions for simple explanations of the concepts to prepare this chapter faster.

  • You can easily clarify your doubts by referring to the notes and solutions of Garbage In Garbage Out on Vedantu.

  • Save your time by referring to these concise solutions to complete your revision quickly before the exam.


Download Garbage In Garbage Out Lakhmir Singh Solutions Class 6 PDF

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FAQs on Lakhmir Singh Solutions for Class 6 Science Chapter 17 Garbage In Garbage Out - PDF

1. What is biodegradable waste?

The waste products that get naturally degraded and assimilated in nature are called biodegradable waste. Example: waste food.

2. What is non-biodegradable waste?

The waste materials that are not decomposed by the microbes are called non-biodegradable waste. Example: plastic bags.

3. What is a landfill?

Biodegradable waste is collected and dumped in the lowlands for filling. It is called a landfill. It is mainly done in the outskirts of a city. 

4. What is compost?

The natural fertilizer or manure produced using kitchen waste is called compost manure. It increases the fertility of garden soil or agricultural lands.

5. What is vermicomposting?

It is a natural process of using red worms for the preparation of natural compost. Vermicompost is used to increase soil fertility naturally.